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Chemical Compound Review

Gypsite     calcium sulfate dihydrate

Synonyms: Annaline, Satinite, Compactrol, Primoplast, Landplaster, ...
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Disease relevance of Gypsum

  • Dehydration conditions similar to those employed in wet calcination of gypsum appeared to be produced under atmospheric pressure when NaCl was present [1].
  • The shards apparently provide microsites with reduced light intensities and reduced O2 tension that allow N2 fixation to proceed in the unicellular Chroococcidiopsis at the gypsum rock, unless the activity is due to minute amounts of other, very active cyanobacteria [2].
  • The Raman spectra of cyanobacterial species, Gloecapsa and Nostoc, in clear gypsum crystals from the Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Canadian High Arctic, site of a meteorite impact during the Miocene some 23 Mya, have been recorded using several visible and near-infrared excitation wavelengths [3].
  • Patients also followed an orthodontic assessment using model-facial photographic and gypsum casts to diagnose malocclusion and dentofacial deformities [4].
  • In this study, two strains of Streptomyces albidoflavus were cultivated on pinewood, gypsum board, particle-board, sand and tryptone glucose extract agar (TGEA) [5].

High impact information on Gypsum

  • Cross-links between reducing sugars and amino groups were shown to exist in a Pleistocene coprolite from Gypsum Cave, Nevada. A chemical agent, N-phenacylthiazolium bromide, that cleaves such cross-links made it possible to amplify DNA sequences [6].
  • A simple and convenient one-pot synthesis of THF solutions of high molecular weight poly(dichlorophosphazene) [NPCl(2)](n), or the (15)N isotopomer [(15)NPCl(2)](n), starting directly from PCl(5) and NH(4)Cl or (15)NH(4)Cl in a solution of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in the presence of sulfamic acid and calcium sulfate dihydrate, is described [7].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gypsum model stones were implanted bilaterally in the proximal ureter and renal calix of the pig via percutaneous access [8].
  • X-ray diffraction of very coarse sieved WTC PM (< 53 microm) identified calcium sulfate (gypsum) and calcium carbonate (calcite) as major components [9].
  • Quantifying mold biomass on gypsum board: comparison of ergosterol and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase as mold biomass parameters [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Gypsum


Biological context of Gypsum

  • The same two mold species were inoculated onto wallpapered gypsum board, from which a direct biomass measurement was not possible [10].
  • In this study, the influence of gypsum on gene expression and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 mouse pre-osteoblastic cells was investigated [12].
  • Cell proliferation on gypsum was increased by almost 2-fold, while an inhibitory effect of PMMA on proliferation rate of osteoblasts was noted [12].
  • Our results suggest that gypsum can support new bone formation by its calcium content and modulatory effect on gene expression profile of bone cells [12].
  • Disinfection procedures: their effect on the dimensional accuracy and surface quality of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials and gypsum casts [13].

Anatomical context of Gypsum

  • At the same time that carcinogenicity of very thin glass fibers after intrapleural and intraperitoneal (ip) administration was demonstrated (1,2) researchers found that gypsum fibers and HCI-leached chrysotile fibers were easily soluble in the peritoneal cavity [14].
  • The diffusive properties of alginate membranes prepared by the interfacial reaction of sodium alginate solution with gypsum substrates were studied [15].
  • Cells cultured on gypsum disc surface exhibited an increased ALP activity and markedly different gene expression profile [12].
  • Osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1), PepTite (a proprietary ligand), calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1 ), and an endothelial cell layer with and without TGF-beta1 were used as surface enhancements to accelerate bone-to-CPC bonding [16].
  • The indoor and outdoor PM10 collected was characterised as being a heterogeneous mixture of particles (soot, fibres, sea salt, smelter, gypsum, pollen and fungal spores) [17].

Associations of Gypsum with other chemical compounds

  • Adsorption of arsenate onto ferrihydrite from aqueous solution: influence of media (sulfate vs nitrate), added gypsum, and pH alteration [18].
  • Equilibration treatment at acidic pH and addition of gypsum markedly improved the stability of adsorbed arsenate on ferrihydrite when pH was elevated [18].
  • Calcite dissolution as well as porosity decreases are due to gypsum formation [19].
  • OBJECTIVES: This study primarily investigated the effect of disinfection procedures (Perform and sodium hypochlorite) on the dimensional accuracy and surface quality of four irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials and the resultant gypsum casts [13].
  • The bioavailability of Ca in calcitic limestone (two sources), oyster shell flour, gypsum, marble dust and aragonite was similar, ranging from 93 to 102% [20].

Gene context of Gypsum

  • At El Salvador No. 1, the delta34S(SO4) average value is -0.9 per thousand, suggesting dissolution of supergene sulfate minerals (jarosite, alunite, gypsum) with a delta34S approximately -0.7 per thousand as the most probable sulfate source [21].
  • Plates of glass, fiberboard, gypsum board, lime mortar and wood lath were painted, and then placed into emission chambers [22].
  • The adsorption rate of the gypsum board predicted by numerical analysis (CFD, Computational Fluid Dynamics) corresponds well with experimental results [23].
  • The cytotoxic effect of wastewater from the phosphoric gypsum depot on common oak (Quercus robur L.) and shallot (Allium cepa var. ascalonicum) [24].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-five phantom gypsum stones (volume 786 mm3 each) were placed in a net-like basket and immersed in a specially designed waterbath coupled with the Duet lithotripter (Direx Medical Systems Ltd., Petach Tikva, Israel) [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gypsum

  • We have prepared DNA extracts from a ground sloth coprolite from Gypsum Cave, Nevada, and quantitated the number of mtDNA copies for three different fragment lengths by using real-time PCR [26].
  • Effect of K2SO4 and CaSO4 dihydrate solutions on crystallization and strength of gypsum [27].
  • Uniform thickness compensators made of gypsum and lead, thermoplastic mask material, immobilization cradle foam, and cerrobend custom blocks were placed in geometries that mimic relevant clinical situations [28].
  • By matching of the attenuation and hardening properties, comparisons are made between shielding afforded by breast tissue materials (water, Lucite and 50%-50% adipose-glandular tissue) and some materials considered for shielding diagnostic x-ray beams, namely lead, steel and gypsum wallboard [29].
  • Characterization of gypsum attenuators for radiotherapy dose modification [30].


  1. Thermal behavior of the gypsum binder in dental casting investments. Mori, T. J. Dent. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Bacterial life and dinitrogen fixation at a gypsum rock. Boison, G., Mergel, A., Jolkver, H., Bothe, H. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Raman spectroscopic analysis of cyanobacterial gypsum halotrophs and relevance for sulfate deposits on Mars. Edwards, H.G., Villar, S.E., Parnell, J., Cockell, C.S., Lee, P. The Analyst. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. The effects of asthma on dental and facial deformities. Faria, V.C., de Oliveira, M.A., Santos, L.A., Santoro, I.L., Fernandes, A.L. The Journal of asthma : official journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification using versatile sampling and analytical methods of volatile compounds from Streptomyces albidoflavus grown on four humid building materials and one synthetic medium. Claeson, A.S., Sunesson, A.L. Indoor air. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular coproscopy: dung and diet of the extinct ground sloth Nothrotheriops shastensis. Poinar, H.N., Hofreiter, M., Spaulding, W.G., Martin, P.S., Stankiewicz, B.A., Bland, H., Evershed, R.P., Possnert, G., Pääbo, S. Science (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. A simplified and convenient laboratory-scale preparation of 14N or 15N high molecular weight poly(dichlorophosphazene) directly from PCl5. Carriedo, G.A., García Alonso, F.J., Gómez-Elipe, P., Fidalgo, J.I., García Alvarez, J.L., Presa-Soto, A. Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Shock wave lithotripsy of stones implanted in the proximal ureter of the pig. Paterson, R.F., Kim, S.C., Kuo, R.L., Lingeman, J.E., Evan, A.P., Connors, B.A., Williams, J.C., McAteer, J.A. J. Urol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Chemical analysis of World Trade Center fine particulate matter for use in toxicologic assessment. McGee, J.K., Chen, L.C., Cohen, M.D., Chee, G.R., Prophete, C.M., Haykal-Coates, N., Wasson, S.J., Conner, T.L., Costa, D.L., Gavett, S.H. Environ. Health Perspect. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Quantifying mold biomass on gypsum board: comparison of ergosterol and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase as mold biomass parameters. Reeslev, M., Miller, M., Nielsen, K.F. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Precision of computer-assisted core decompression drilling of the knee. Beckmann, J., Goetz, J., Bäthis, H., Kalteis, T., Grifka, J., Perlick, L. Knee (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of gypsum on proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblastic cells. Laz??ry, A., Balla, B., K??sa, J.P., B??csi, K., Nagy, Z., Tak??cs, I., Varga, P.P., Speer, G., Lakatos, P. Biomaterials (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Disinfection procedures: their effect on the dimensional accuracy and surface quality of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials and gypsum casts. Taylor, R.L., Wright, P.S., Maryan, C. Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Significance of durability of mineral fibers for their toxicity and carcinogenic potency in the abdominal cavity of rats in comparison with the low sensitivity of inhalation studies. Pott, F., Roller, M., Kamino, K., Bellmann, B. Environ. Health Perspect. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Diffusion characteristics of alginate membranes. Andreopoulos, A.G. Biomaterials (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Surface enhancements accelerate bone bonding to CPC-coated strain gauges. Cordaro, N.M., Szivek, J.A., DeYoung, D.W. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. The spatial and temporal variations in PM10 mass from six UK homes. BéruBé, K.A., Sexton, K.J., Jones, T.P., Moreno, T., Anderson, S., Richards, R.J. Sci. Total Environ. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Adsorption of arsenate onto ferrihydrite from aqueous solution: influence of media (sulfate vs nitrate), added gypsum, and pH alteration. Jia, Y., Demopoulos, G.P. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Mineralogical study of salt crusts formed on historic building stones. Bai, Y., Thompson, G.E., Martinez-Ramirez, S., Brüeggerhoff, S. Sci. Total Environ. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of source and particle size on the biological availability of calcium in calcium supplements for growing pigs. Ross, R.D., Cromwell, G.L., Stahly, T.S. J. Anim. Sci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Sulfur speciation and stable isotope trends of water-soluble sulfates in mine tailings profiles. Dold, B., Spangenberg, J.E. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Drying of linseed oil paints: the effects of substrate on the emission of aldehydes. Fjällström, P., Andersson, B., Nilsson, C. Indoor air. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Study of effect of adsorptive building material on formaldehyde concentrations: development of measuring methods and modeling of adsorption phenomena. Ataka, Y., Kato, S., Murakami, S., Zhu, Q., Ito, K., Yokota, T. Indoor air. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. The cytotoxic effect of wastewater from the phosphoric gypsum depot on common oak (Quercus robur L.) and shallot (Allium cepa var. ascalonicum). Pavlica, M., Besendorfer, V., Rosa, J., Papes, D. Chemosphere (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Efficacy of the Duet lithotripter using two energy sources for stone fragmentation by shockwaves: an in vitro study. Greenstein, A., Sofer, M., Matzkin, H. J. Endourol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Nuclear gene sequences from a late pleistocene sloth coprolite. Poinar, H., Kuch, M., McDonald, G., Martin, P., Pääbo, S. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of K2SO4 and CaSO4 dihydrate solutions on crystallization and strength of gypsum. Shen, C., Mohammed, H., Kamar, A. J. Dent. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  28. Dose behind various immobilization and beam-modifying devices. Mellenberg, D.E. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Determination of shielding requirements for mammography. Okunade, A.A., Ademoroti, O.A. Medical physics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Characterization of gypsum attenuators for radiotherapy dose modification. Arora, V.R., Weeks, K.J. Medical physics. (1994) [Pubmed]
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