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Disease relevance of Cladosporium


High impact information on Cladosporium


Biological context of Cladosporium


Anatomical context of Cladosporium


Associations of Cladosporium with chemical compounds

  • Tomato leaves or cotyledons expressing the Cf-2 or Cf-9 Cladosporium fulvum resistance genes induce salicylic acid (SA) synthesis following infiltration with intercellular washing fluid (IF) containing the fungal peptide elicitors Avr2 and Avr9 [18].
  • Tomato Cf genes encode membrane-bound proteins with extracellular leucine-rich repeats, and confer resistance to the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum, and a hypersensitive response (HR) to C. fulvum-derived race-specific elicitors [19].
  • In addition to these pathways in Cladosporium spp., H. werneckii, and A. pullulans, ergosterol may also be synthesized through reduction of the C-24 methylene group before desaturation at C-5 and C-22 or vice versa [20].
  • A close study of the sterol composition of such fungi, namely Hortaea werneckii, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Cladosporium sp., and Aureobasidium pullulans revealed the dominance of ergosterol and the presence of 29 intermediates of its biosynthesis pathway [20].
  • Disulfide bond structure of the AVR9 elicitor of the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum: evidence for a cystine knot [21].

Gene context of Cladosporium

  • Expression of the Avirulence gene Avr9 of the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum is regulated by the global nitrogen response factor NRF1 [22].
  • Three of them (ALDH, YCP4 and P2) were found to be allergens in both fungi, Alternaria and Cladosporium [23].
  • Differential regulation of CD3- and CD28-induced IL-2 and IFN-gamma production by a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor XR774 from Cladosporium cf. cladosporioides [24].
  • Tomato leaves infected by the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum contain several types of intracellular and extracellular pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins [25].
  • Here we describe the role of the Cladosporium fulvum nitrogen response factor 1 (Nrf1) gene in regulation of the expression of avirulence gene Avr9 and virulence on tomato [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cladosporium


  1. p-Coumaroylnoradrenaline, a novel plant metabolite implicated in tomato defense against pathogens. Von Roepenack-Lahaye, E., Newman, M.A., Schornack, S., Hammond-Kosack, K.E., Lahaye, T., Jones, J.D., Daniels, M.J., Dow, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation from Cussonia barteri of 1'-O-chlorogenoylchlorogenic acid and 1'-O-chlorogenoylneochlorogenic acid, a new type of quinic acid esters. Papajewski, S., Vogler, B., Conrad, J., Klaiber, I., Roos, G., Walter, C.U., Süssmuth, R., Kraus, W. Planta Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Chromomycosis due to Cladosporium carrionii treated with 5-fluorocytosine. A case report from northern Nigeria. Jacyk, W.K. Cutis; cutaneous medicine for the practitioner. (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Allergen immunotherapy for asthma. Abramson, M.J., Puy, R.M., Weiner, J.M. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Binding of the AVR4 elicitor of Cladosporium fulvum to chitotriose units is facilitated by positive allosteric protein-protein interactions: the chitin-binding site of AVR4 represents a novel binding site on the folding scaffold shared between the invertebrate and the plant chitin-binding domain. van den Burg, H.A., Spronk, C.A., Boeren, S., Kennedy, M.A., Vissers, J.P., Vuister, G.W., de Wit, P.J., Vervoort, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. A cDNA clone coding for a novel allergen, Cla h III, of Cladosporium herbarum identified as a ribosomal P2 protein. Zhang, L., Muradia, G., Curran, I.H., Rode, H., Vijay, H.M. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray investigation of acid protease from Cladosporium. Subramanian, E., Cook, W.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. alpha-Amylase inhibitor from fungus Cladosporium herbarum F-828. Saito, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Alcohol oxidase is a novel pathogenicity factor for Cladosporium fulvum, but aldehyde dehydrogenase is dispensable. Segers, G., Bradshaw, N., Archer, D., Blissett, K., Oliver, R.P. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia inhibit tumour necrosis factor- or staurosporine-induced apoptosis in epithelial cells. Berkova, N., Lair-Fulleringer, S., Féménia, F., Huet, D., Wagner, M.C., Gorna, K., Tournier, F., Ibrahim-Granet, O., Guillot, J., Chermette, R., Boireau, P., Latgé, J.P. Int. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. The pH dependence of the mutagenicity of methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate (MBC) towards Aspergillus nidulans (Eidam) Winter and Cladosporium cucumerinum Ellis & Arth. Nirenberg, H.I., Speakman, J.B. Mutat. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Atmospheric concentrations of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. spores in Zagreb (Croatia) and effects of some meteorological factors. Peternel, R., Culig, J., Hrga, I. Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine : AAEM. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Reproducibility of early asthmatic response to Cladosporium herbarum. Bundgaard, A., Boudet, L. European journal of respiratory diseases. Supplement. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Association between severity of atopic eczema and degree of sensitization to aeroallergens in schoolchildren. Schäfer, T., Heinrich, J., Wjst, M., Adam, H., Ring, J., Wichmann, H.E. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Serial enzymatic hydrolysis of cell walls of two serotypes of yeast-form Histoplasma capsulatum with alpha(1 leads to 3)-glucanase, beta(1 leads to 3)-glucanase, pronase, and chitinase. Reiss, E. Infect. Immun. (1977) [Pubmed]
  16. Volumetric assessment of airborne pollen and spore levels in Rochester, Minnesota, 1992 through 1995. Decco, M.L., Wendland, B.I., O'Connell, E.J. Mayo Clin. Proc. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Experimental central nervous system phaeohyphomycosis following intranasal inoculation of Xylohypha bantiana in cortisone-treated mice. Dixon, D.M., Merz, W.G., Elliott, H.L., Macleay, S. Mycopathologia (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Salicylic acid is not required for Cf-2- and Cf-9-dependent resistance of tomato to Cladosporium fulvum. Brading, P.A., Hammond-Kosack, K.E., Parr, A., Jones, J.D. Plant J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Gene shuffling-generated and natural variants of the tomato resistance gene Cf-9 exhibit different auto-necrosis-inducing activities in Nicotiana species. Wulff, B.B., Kruijt, M., Collins, P.L., Thomas, C.M., Ludwig, A.A., De Wit, P.J., Jones, J.D. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Ergosterol biosynthesis in novel melanized fungi from hypersaline environments. Méjanelle, L., Lòpez, J.F., Gunde-Cimerman, N., Grimalt, J.O. J. Lipid Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Disulfide bond structure of the AVR9 elicitor of the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum: evidence for a cystine knot. van den Hooven, H.W., van den Burg, H.A., Vossen, P., Boeren, S., de Wit, P.J., Vervoort, J. Biochemistry (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of the Avirulence gene Avr9 of the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum is regulated by the global nitrogen response factor NRF1. Pérez-García, A., Snoeijers, S.S., Joosten, M.H., Goosen, T., De Wit, P.J. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular cloning of major and minor allergens of Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium herbarum. Achatz, G., Oberkofler, H., Lechenauer, E., Simon, B., Unger, A., Kandler, D., Ebner, C., Prillinger, H., Kraft, D., Breitenbach, M. Mol. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Differential regulation of CD3- and CD28-induced IL-2 and IFN-gamma production by a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor XR774 from Cladosporium cf. cladosporioides. Sadeghi, R., Depledge, P., Rawlins, P., Dhanjal, N., Manic, A., Wrigley, S., Foxwell, B., Moore, M. Int. Immunopharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Differential accumulation of mRNAs encoding extracellular and intracellular PR proteins in tomato induced by virulent and avirulent races of Cladosporium fulvum. van Kan, J.A., Joosten, M.H., Wagemakers, C.A., van den Berg-Velthuis, G.C., de Wit, P.J. Plant Mol. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Atopy and nonspecific bronchial responsiveness. A population-based assessment. Spanish Group of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Soriano, J.B., Tobías, A., Kogevinas, M., Sunyer, J., Saez, M., Martínez-Moratalla, J., Ramos, J., Maldonado, J.A., Payo, F., Antó, J.M. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of mould allergy. VIII. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of IgE in Cladosporium immunotherapy. Malling, H.J., Stahl Skov, P. Allergy (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. A new phloroglucinol derivative from Hypericum calycinum with antifungal and in vitro antimalarial activity. Decosterd, L.A., Hoffmann, E., Kyburz, R., Bray, D., Hostettmann, K. Planta Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of mould allergy. IV. Relation between asthma symptoms, spore counts and diagnostic tests. Malling, H.J. Allergy (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of mould allergy. III. Diagnosis of Cladosporium allergy by means of symptom score, bronchial provocation test, skin prick test, RAST, CRIE and histamine release. Malling, H.J., Dreborg, S., Weeke, B. Allergy (1986) [Pubmed]
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