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MeSH Review

Sea Lions

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Disease relevance of Sea Lions


High impact information on Sea Lions

  • This bloom was associated with production of domoic acid (DA), a neurotoxin that was also detected in planktivorous fish, including the northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and in sea lion body fluids [3].
  • In 0.1% Triton X-100, sea lion isomaltase occurs as a monomer of Mr = 245,000 and is composed of a single polypeptide chain [4].
  • In addition to cross-reacting immunologically with rabbit sucrase-isomaltase, sea lion isomaltase has similar overall enzymatic properties, with the exception of not hydrolyzing sucrose [4].
  • Renin and aldosterone levels in dolphins and sea lions [5].
  • Using SSP-PCR, significant differences were found between coastal California and Gulf of California Zalophus populations in numbers of DRB sequences per individual and configuration of sequences within individuals [6].

Biological context of Sea Lions


Anatomical context of Sea Lions


Associations of Sea Lions with chemical compounds

  • This rise in lactate and our inability to train sea lions to dive or swim submerged for periods longer than 3 min lead us to conclude that an aerobic limit had been reached [8].
  • Concentrations of TCPMe and TCPMOH in California sea lions were correlated significantly with DDT concentrations [12].
  • 2,3,7,8-Substituted PCDDs and PCDFs in sea lion (Otaria flavescens) skin biopsies from two South-western Atlantic populations [13].
  • We measured circulating levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in 12 healthy juvenile California sea lions captured on Año Nuevo Island, California, in 2002 [14].
  • Nine free-ranging Galápagos sea lions were immobilised for marking, using a combination of ketamine (3 to 5 mg per kg) and xylazine (0.5 to 1.0 mg per kg) [15].

Gene context of Sea Lions

  • Five of the fragments, one from each species, were classified in the subfamily of CYP1A1, and the other fragment cloned from steller sea lion was designated CYP1A2 [16].
  • Bioreactive (B) gonadotrophin was found in these placentae and, compared to the human term placenta, the concentration of CG in the dolphin was higher, in the sea lion similar and in the grey seal lower [17].
  • Molecular characterization of expressed DQA and DQB genes in the California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus) [18].
  • Seals, like humans, possess gastric lipase; however, the milk lipids of seals and sea lions are almost devoid of the readily hydrolyzable medium-chain fatty acids, and are characterized by a large percentage (10-30%) of n-3 PUFA [19].
  • Chorionic gonadotrophin activity in extracts of the term placenta of a dolphin, a sea lion and a grey seal was measured by its effectiveness in increasing uterine weight in the mouse and by solid-phase RIA using hCG as immunogen and labelled antigen [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sea Lions


  1. Single major polypeptide of a calicivirus: characterization by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stabilization of virions by cross-linking with dimethyl suberimidate. Schaffer, F.L., Soergel, M.E. J. Virol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  2. Pathology of domoic acid toxicity in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Silvagni, P.A., Lowenstine, L.J., Spraker, T., Lipscomb, T.P., Gulland, F.M. Vet. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Mortality of sea lions along the central California coast linked to a toxic diatom bloom. Scholin, C.A., Gulland, F., Doucette, G.J., Benson, S., Busman, M., Chavez, F.P., Cordaro, J., DeLong, R., De Vogelaere, A., Harvey, J., Haulena, M., Lefebvre, K., Lipscomb, T., Loscutoff, S., Lowenstine, L.J., Marin, R., Miller, P.E., McLellan, W.A., Moeller, P.D., Powell, C.L., Rowles, T., Silvagni, P., Silver, M., Spraker, T., Trainer, V., Van Dolah, F.M. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. A two-active site one-polypeptide enzyme: the isomaltase from sea lion small intestinal brush-border membrane. Its possible phylogenetic relationship with sucrase-isomaltase. Wacker, H., Aggeler, R., Kretchmer, N., O'Neill, B., Takesue, Y., Semenza, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Renin and aldosterone levels in dolphins and sea lions. Malvin, R.L., Ridgway, S.H., Cornell, L. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  6. MHC gene configuration variation in geographically disparate populations of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Bowen, L., Aldridge, B.M., Delong, R., Melin, S., Godinez, C., Zavala, A., Gulland, F., Lowenstine, L., Stott, J.L., Johnson, M.L. Mol. Ecol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. From sanddabs to blue whales: the pervasiveness of domoic acid. Lefebvre, K.A., Bargu, S., Kieckhefer, T., Silver, M.W. Toxicon (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Heart rate and plasma lactate responses during submerged swimming and trained diving in California sea lions, Zalophus californianus. Ponganis, P.J., Kooyman, G.L., Winter, L.M., Starke, L.N. J. Comp. Physiol. B, Biochem. Syst. Environ. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Evidence for a prolonged postimplantation period in the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea). Gales, N.J., Williamson, P., Higgins, L.V., Blackberry, M.A., James, I. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Evaluation of adrenal function in serum and feces of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus): influences of molt, gender, sample storage, and age on glucocorticoid metabolism. Mashburn, K.L., Atkinson, S. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Muscle metabolic profiles and fiber-type composition in some marine mammals. Ponganis, P.J., Pierce, R.W. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1978) [Pubmed]
  12. Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and butyltin compounds in blubber and livers of stranded California sea lions, elephant seals, and harbor seals from coastal California, USA. Kajiwara, N., Kannan, K., Muraoka, M., Watanabe, M., Takahashi, S., Gulland, F., Olsen, H., Blankenship, A.L., Jones, P.D., Tanabe, S., Giesy, J.P. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. 2,3,7,8-Substituted PCDDs and PCDFs in sea lion (Otaria flavescens) skin biopsies from two South-western Atlantic populations. Jimènez, B., Gonzàlez, M.J., Hernández, L.M., Eljarrat, E., Rivera, J., Fossi, M.C. Chemosphere (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. PCBs and DDT in the serum of juvenile California sea lions: associations with vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones. Debier, C., Ylitalo, G.M., Weise, M., Gulland, F., Costa, D.P., Le Boeuf, B.J., de Tillesse, T., Larondelle, Y. Environ. Pollut. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Immobilisation of free-ranging Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus californianus wollebaeki). Trillmich, F., Wiesner, H. Vet. Rec. (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of novel cytochrome P450 1A genes from five marine mammal species. Teramitsu, I., Yamamoto, Y., Chiba, I., Iwata, H., Tanabe, S., Fujise, Y., Kazusaka, A., Akahori, F., Fujita, S. Aquat. Toxicol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Gonadotrophin in the term placenta of the dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the Californian sea lion (Zalophus californianus), the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and man. Hobson, B.M., Wide, L. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Molecular characterization of expressed DQA and DQB genes in the California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus). Bowen, L., Aldridge, B.M., Gulland, F., Woo, J., Van Bonn, W., DeLong, R., Stott, J.L., Johnson, M.L. Immunogenetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Positional specificity of gastric hydrolysis of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of seal milk triglycerides. Iverson, S.J., Sampugna, J., Oftedal, O.T. Lipids (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Postnatal ontogeny of erythropoietin and hematology in free-ranging Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Richmond, J.P., Burns, J.M., Rea, L.D., Mashburn, K.L. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Immobilization of California sea lions using medetomidine plus ketamine with and without isoflurane and reversal with atipamezole. Haulena, M., Gulland, F.M., Calkins, D.G., Spraker, T.R. J. Wildl. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
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