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MeSH Review

Skull Fractures

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Disease relevance of Skull Fractures

  • This type of test provides an advantage over caloric testing in the presence of external and middle ear disease and basal skull fracture and can be a useful adjunct in the evaluation of coma and brain death [1].
  • Riders wearing helmets suffered fewer skull fractures, fewer intracranial injuries, had less frequent and shorter periods of loss of consciousness, more favorable GCS scores, and shorter hospital stays [2].
  • The frequency and severity of the abnormalities correlated with the severity of the head injury, and there was a trend suggesting that middle fossa basal skull fractures predisposed to cortisol abnormalities [3].
  • Three-dimensional CT maximum intensity projection (MIP) can depict suture patency, extent of synostosis (ie, complete versus incomplete bone bridging), fracture extent and conspicuity, and 3D calvarial deformity as a single set of projections in children with suspected craniosynostosis or skull fracture [4].
  • For two years, four ampoules of co-trimoxazole twice a day, followed by four tablets twice a day, which were administered to neurosurgical patients and to patients admitted to hospital with skull fractures, produced no toxicity and this regimen has not been associated with postoperative meningitis [5].

Psychiatry related information on Skull Fractures

  • In a follow-up of 174 head injured patients, it was found that patients with acceleration injuries evinced a longer duration of coma, lengthier post-traumatic amnesia, and less number of skull fractures [6].
  • Definition of acute TBI was according to the ICD 10 S-02, S-04, S-06, S-07, S-09 in combination with dizziness or vomiting; retrograde or anterograde amnesia, impaired consciousness, skull fracture, and/or focal neurological impairment [7].

High impact information on Skull Fractures


Chemical compound and disease context of Skull Fractures


Gene context of Skull Fractures

  • Injury severity measures included GCS, ISS, AIS, and presence/absence of intracranial lesion, skull fracture and amnesia [17].
  • Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss complicating basal skull fracture [18].
  • RESULTS: Four patients developed complications related to the instrumentation: 2 following cranial surgery for epilepsy, 1 after correction of a growing skull fracture, and 1 after laminotomy for an intramedullary tumor [19].
  • Three head injuries are described in the Bible: the death of Sisera at the hands of Jael, the skull fractures inflicted on Abimelech near the walls of Thebez, and the slaying of Goliath by David [20].
  • A skull fracture was found in 103 cases and was accompanied by epidural hematoma (HED) in 19 cases (18%) and by subdural hematoma (HSD) in 12 cases (12%) [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Skull Fractures

  • In adults, multiple variables such as skull fracture, Glasgow Coma Scale score, unconsciousness, and amnesia are significant factors that determine whether to admit the patient to the hospital and the patient's outcome [22].


  1. Galvanic vestibular tests in the assessment of coma and brain death. Toglia, J.U., Adam, R.U., Stewart, G. Ann. Neurol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. The impact of two related prevention strategies on head injury reduction among nonfatally injured motorcycle riders, California, 1991-1993. Kraus, J.F., Peek, C. J. Neurotrauma (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Serum cortisol abnormalities after craniocerebral trauma. Steinbok, P., Thompson, G. Neurosurgery (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Three-dimensional CT maximum intensity projections of the calvaria: a new approach for diagnosis of craniosynostosis and fractures. Medina, L.S. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. High-dose co-trimoxazole and its penetration through uninflamed meninges. Goodwin, C.S., Bucens, M.C., Davis, R.E., Norcott, T.C. Med. J. Aust. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Biomechanics and head injury outcome. Sabhesan, S., Natarajan, M. Journal of the Indian Medical Association. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Quality management in traumatic brain injury (TBI) lessons from the prospective study in 6.800 patients after acute TBI in respect of neurorehabilitation. von Wild, K.R., Wenzlaff, P. Acta Neurochir. Suppl. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. High-yield referral criteria for posttraumatic skull roentgenography. Response of physicians and accuracy of criteria. Cummins, R.O., LoGerfo, J.P., Inui, T.S., Weiss, N.S. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. Predictive value of skull radiography for intracranial injury in children with blunt head injury. Lloyd, D.A., Carty, H., Patterson, M., Butcher, C.K., Roe, D. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Long-term treatment of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion with phenytoin. Tanay, A., Yust, I., Peresecenschi, G., Abramov, A.L., Aviram, A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Coupling of a finite element human head model with a lumped parameter Hybrid III dummy model: preliminary results. Ruan, J.S., Prasad, P. J. Neurotrauma (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Letter: Compound elevated skull fractures. Verdura, J., White, R.J. J. Neurosurg. (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. The medicolegal implications of bilateral cranial fractures in infants. Hiss, J., Kahana, T. The Journal of trauma. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Long-term follow up of a growing skull fracture treated by dura and cranioplasty with artificial dura mater and methylmethacrylate. Hayashi, Y., Yamaki, T., Odake, G., Hashimoto, Y., Ueda, S. Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Unusual anaphylatoxin dynamics after head injury--case report. Moskopp, D., Löcherbach-Zawadzky, A. Neurochirurgia. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Male pituitary-gonadal dysfunction following severe traumatic brain injury. Lee, S.C., Zasler, N.D., Kreutzer, J.S. Brain injury : [BI]. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Head injuries in skiers: an analysis of injury severity and outcome. Diamond, P.T., Gale, S.D., Denkhaus, H.K. Brain injury : [BI]. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss complicating basal skull fracture. Atkin, G., Watkins, L., Rich, P. British journal of neurosurgery. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Complications of bioresorbable fixation systems in pediatric neurosurgery. Kumar, C.R., Sood, S., Ham, S. Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Three head injuries: the Biblical account of the deaths of Sisera, Abimelech and Goliath. Feinsod, M. Journal of the history of the neurosciences. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. How should we manage children after mild head injury? Mandera, M., Wencel, T., Bazowski, P., Krauze, J. Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Risk factors in the outcome of children with minor head injury. Hahn, Y.S., McLone, D.G. Pediatric neurosurgery. (1993) [Pubmed]
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