The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Brain Death

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Brain Death


Psychiatry related information on Brain Death


High impact information on Brain Death


Chemical compound and disease context of Brain Death

  • In brain-dead pigs, the increases in the aforementioned blood measurements were smaller following glucose/insulin infusion than following saline infusion [13].
  • An innocuous intravenous portable radioisotopic test using technetium 99m pertechnetate was employed to demonstrate the deficit of cerebral blood flow associated with brain death [14].
  • Four groups of 40-kg pigs were studied: brain-dead and control pigs given isotonic saline or glucose/insulin (7.5 mg glucose/kg/min, 1.25 mU insulin/kg/ min) (n = 5 to 10 in each group) [13].
  • A mean lowest creatinine level of 2.0 mg/dL, (range 1.1-3.0 mg/dL), the rate of postoperative dialysis (22%), and a 1-year graft survival rate of 76% for kidneys from NHB-donated kidneys compare favorably to expected results achieved nationally from brain-dead cadaveric donors [15].
  • Donors were treated immediately after induction of brain death either with intravenous steroids, which block inflammatory cytokine release, or a soluble P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (sPSGL), which blocks initial selectin-mediated cellular adhesion [16].

Biological context of Brain Death


Anatomical context of Brain Death


Gene context of Brain Death

  • Levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and transforming growth factor-beta were twice as high after brain death but did not reach significance [25].
  • Serum IL-8 levels in patients who died or became brain dead within 1 week after ROSC were significantly higher than those in other patients [26].
  • Intrinsic ADH was depleted in the plasma shortly after the diagnosis of brain death [27].
  • Shortly after brain death induction, a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 was demonstrated in a time-dependent manner [28].
  • Recent studies have shown that brain death upregulates multiple lymphocyte- and macrophage-derived cytokines and the injured brain itself may be the source of proinflammatory factors such as S100B [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Brain Death


  1. Variability in brain death determination practices in children. Mejia, R.E., Pollack, M.M. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Administration of desmopressin in brain-dead donors and renal function in kidney recipients. Guesde, R., Barrou, B., Leblanc, I., Ourahma, S., Goarin, J.P., Coriat, P., Riou, B. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Death from cerebral hypoperfusion during nitroprusside treatment of acute angiotensin-dependent hypertension. Haas, D.C., Streeten, D.H., Kim, R.C., Naalbandian, A.N., Obeid, A.I. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Assessment of brain death in children by means of P-31 MR spectroscopy: preliminary note. Work in progress. Kato, T., Tokumaru, A., O'uchi, T., Mikami, I., Umeda, M., Nose, K., Eguchi, T., Hasegawa, M., Okuyama, K. Radiology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Preservation of ischemia and isoflurane-induced preconditioning after brain death in rabbit hearts. Chiari, P., Piriou, V., Hadour, G., Rodriguez, C., Loufouat, J., Lehot, J.J., Ovize, M., Ferrera, R. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Emergent EEG is helpful in neurology critical care practice. Firosh Khan, S., Ashalatha, R., Thomas, S.V., Sarma, P.S. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Single photon emission computed tomography brain imaging. Mullan, B.P., O'Connor, M.K., Hung, J.C. Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Brain death sans frontières. Levin, S.D., Whyte, R.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Cardiopulmonary bypass in brain-dead organ donors. The Brain Death Study Group. Link, J., Schäfer, M., Gramm, H.J. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Cyclic AMP metabolism and adenylate cyclase concentration in patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis. Francavilla, A., Jones, A.F., Starzl, T.E. Gastroenterology (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Nonlinear control of heart rate variability in human infants. Sugihara, G., Allan, W., Sobel, D., Allan, K.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Variable effects of explosive or gradual increase of intracranial pressure on myocardial structure and function. Shivalkar, B., Van Loon, J., Wieland, W., Tjandra-Maga, T.B., Borgers, M., Plets, C., Flameng, W. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of brain death and glucose infusion on hepatic glycogen and blood hormones in the pig. Roelsgaard, K., Botker, H.E., Stodkilde-Jorgensen, H., Andreasen, F., Jensen, S.L., Keiding, S. Hepatology (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Brain death: I. Angiographic correlation with the radioisotopic bolus technique for evaluation of critical deficit of cerebral blood flow. Korein, J., Braunstein, P., George, A., Wichter, M., Kricheff, I., Lieberman, A., Pearson, J. Ann. Neurol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Nonheartbeating cadaveric organ donation. Orloff, M.S., Reed, A.I., Erturk, E., Kruk, R.A., Paprocki, S.A., Cimbalo, S.C., Cerilli, G.J. Ann. Surg. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Improvements in early behavior of rat kidney allografts after treatment of the brain-dead donor. Pratschke, J., Kofla, G., Wilhelm, M.J., Vergopoulos, A., Laskowski, I., Shaw, G.D., Tullius, S.G., Volk, H.D., Neuhaus, P., Tilney, N.L. Ann. Surg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Scalp, earlobe and nasopharyngeal recordings of the median nerve somatosensory evoked P14 potential in coma and brain death. Detailed latency and amplitude analysis in 181 patients. Wagner, W. Brain (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Neurochemical monitoring of fatal middle cerebral artery infarction. Berger, C., Annecke, A., Aschoff, A., Spranger, M., Schwab, S. Stroke (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Maintenance of liver graft viability in the state of brain death. Synergistic effects of vasopressin and epinephrine on hepatic energy metabolism in brain-dead dogs. Manaka, D., Okamoto, R., Yokoyama, T., Yamamoto, Y., Washida, M., Ino, K., Yamaoka, Y., Kumada, K., Ozawa, K. Transplantation (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Acute endocrine failure after brain death? Gramm, H.J., Meinhold, H., Bickel, U., Zimmermann, J., von Hammerstein, B., Keller, F., Dennhardt, R., Voigt, K. Transplantation (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Estimation of myocardial interstitial norepinephrine release after brain death using cardiac microdialysis. Mertes, P.M., Carteaux, J.P., Jaboin, Y., Pinelli, G., el Abassi, K., Dopff, C., Atkinson, J., Villemot, J.P., Burlet, C., Boulange, M. Transplantation (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Donor brain death aggravates chronic rejection after lung transplantation in rats. Zweers, N., Petersen, A.H., van der Hoeven, J.A., de Haan, A., Ploeg, R.J., de Leij, L.F., Prop, J. Transplantation (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Brain death in early infancy. Ashwal, S. J. Heart Lung Transplant. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Stable myocardial function and endocrine dysfunction during experimental brain death. Ferrera, R., Ovize, M., Claustrat, B., Hadour, G. J. Heart Lung Transplant. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Effect of brain death on gene expression and tissue activation in human donor kidneys. Nijboer, W.N., Schuurs, T.A., van der Hoeven, J.A., Fekken, S., Wiersema-Buist, J., Leuvenink, H.G., Hofker, S., Homan van der Heide, J.J., van Son, W.J., Ploeg, R.J. Transplantation (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Significance of elevated serum interleukin-8 in patients resuscitated after cardiopulmonary arrest. Ito, T., Saitoh, D., Fukuzuka, K., Kiyozumi, T., Kawakami, M., Sakamoto, T., Okada, Y. Resuscitation. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Morphological and functional alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary system in brain death with long-term bodily living. Sugimoto, T., Sakano, T., Kinoshita, Y., Masui, M., Yoshioka, T. Acta neurochirurgica. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Brain death significantly reduces isolated pancreatic islet yields and functionality in vitro and in vivo after transplantation in rats. Contreras, J.L., Eckstein, C., Smyth, C.A., Sellers, M.T., Vilatoba, M., Bilbao, G., Rahemtulla, F.G., Young, C.J., Thompson, J.A., Chaudry, I.H., Eckhoff, D.E. Diabetes (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Hemoadsorption to improve organ recovery from brain-dead organ donors: a novel therapy for a novel indication? Venkataraman, R., Song, M., Lynas, R., Kellum, J.A. Blood Purif. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Failure of electroencephalography to diagnose brain death in comatose children. Ashwal, S., Schneider, S. Ann. Neurol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  31. Liver transplantation from a cadaver donor with ethylene-glycol-induced brain death. Dy-Liacco, M.S., Tuttle-Newhall, E.J., Collins, B.H., Kuo, P.C. Transplantation (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Autonomic control of heart rate after brain injury in children. Goldstein, B., Kempski, M.H., DeKing, D., Cox, C., DeLong, D.J., Kelly, M.M., Woolf, P.D. Crit. Care Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. The effects of brain death and 24 hours' storage by hypothermic perfusion on donor heart function in the pig. Wicomb, W.N., Cooper, D.K., Lanza, R.P., Novitzky, D., Isaacs, S. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1986) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities