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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Intubation

  • Rats at 7 weeks of age received intragastric intubations of PhIP (85 mg / kg body weight) 4 times weekly for 2 weeks and were maintained on control diet (high fat diet) or experimental diet (high fat diet supplemented with 400 ppm nimesulide) throughout the experiment [1].
  • RESULTS: Both ages showed similar ethanol-induced tachycardia and activity suppression; however, adolescents were found to be more sensitive than adults to the hypothermic effect of ethanol, data opposite other results from our laboratory and elsewhere using intragastric intubations or intraperitoneal administrations of ethanol [2].
  • The patient group intubated with SUX was characterized by a greater percentage of women (48% vs 35%; P less than .05), a higher mean Glasgow Coma Scale score (8.6 vs 3.4), fewer intubations for cardiac arrest (3% vs 81%), and more hospital survivors (58% vs 24%; P less than .005) [3].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Early bubble CPAP reduced delivery room intubations, days on mechanical ventilation, postnatal steroid use and was associated with increased postnatal weight gain with no increased complications [4].

High impact information on Intubation

  • Groups of Charles River Sprague-Dawley male rats were given intragastric intubations of methylbenzylnitrosamine after receiving one of the following diets for 4 weeks: control, zinc-deficient, or zinc-deficient diet plus 4% ethanol in the drinking water [5].
  • Although the rate of ETI was lower among COPD patients receiving NPPV, this trend did not reach statistical significance (5.26 intubations versus 15.63 intubations per 100 ICU days, p = 0.12, NPPV versus UMC, respectively) [6].
  • Initial time course intubations using adrenals from a single donor generally demonstrated that minces and suspensions had a greater steroid production compared with slices [7].
  • Feeding of retinyl acetate (0.2 mM) or N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR) (1.0 mM) for 27 weeks to female BD2F1 mice previously treated with a series of gastric intubations of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA), did not significantly affect the incidence of mammary tumors [8].
  • The number of tracheal intubations that the trainees were required to perform before acquiring expertise in LEI was estimated [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Intubation


Biological context of Intubation


Anatomical context of Intubation

  • Periodic intubations of rats with solutions of fluoride (F) lead to the appearance of bands of disrupted pigmentation in continuously erupting incisors [13].
  • In two patients in the propofol group the tracheas were moderately difficult to intubate but there were no failed intubations in either group [14].
  • Rats trained to alternately shuttle between nose poke and lever operanda for rewarding stimulation to the medial forebrain bundle, were tested following intragastric intubations of ethanol (18%, 1.35 g/kg), Ro 15-4513 (3 mg/kg in 18% ethanol), or vehicle [15].
  • To further examine the regulation of TRL on ob mRNA expression, differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with TRL collected from rats fed 5 ml soybean oil by gastric intubations [16].

Associations of Intubation with chemical compounds


Gene context of Intubation

  • To see whether the effects of ciprofibrate could be imitated, rats were given another PPAR alpha ligand WY-14643 or the PPAR gamma ligand troglitazone by gastric intubations daily for 28 and 56 days [21].
  • Distribution of intubations by level of EM training was PGY1, 5%; PGY2, 52%; PGY3, 40%; and attendings, 3% [22].
  • As judged by the author(s) on the morning after the intubation, correct initial placement was achieved in 69 (78%) of 88 intubations using the new system, compared with 71 (66%) of 107 using the standard technique (Fisher's Test, one-tailed, P = .044) [23].
  • The LTA cannula and difficult intubations [24].
  • This hypothesis was supported by the different distributions of Cd in the liver and kidney after Cd-MT and CdCl2 intubations [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Intubation

  • Half the rats in each group received intragastric intubation with nimodipine daily for 14 days after transplantation surgery, whereas the other half received control intubations [26].
  • Hepatic bile flow and its bile acid composition were determined in a group of 23 rats receiving 20% (W/v) ethanol by daily intubations 5 times a week over a 10-12 week period and in a control group of 23 rats [27].


  1. Chemoprevention by nimesulide, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in rats. Nakatsugi, S., Ohta, T., Kawamori, T., Mutoh, M., Tanigawa, T., Watanabe, K., Sugie, S., Sugimura, T., Wakabayashi, K. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Sensitivity and tolerance to autonomic effects of ethanol in adolescent and adult rats during repeated vapor inhalation sessions. Ristuccia, R.C., Spear, L.P. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Succinylcholine-assisted intubations in prehospital care. Hedges, J.R., Dronen, S.C., Feero, S., Hawkins, S., Syverud, S.A., Shultz, B. Annals of emergency medicine. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Early bubble CPAP and outcomes in ELBW preterm infants. Narendran, V., Donovan, E.F., Hoath, S.B., Akinbi, H.T., Steichen, J.J., Jobe, A.H. Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Zinc deficiency, alcohol, and retinoid: association with esophageal cancer in rats. Gabrial, G.N., Schrager, T.F., Newberne, P.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. A randomized, prospective evaluation of noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Martin, T.J., Hovis, J.D., Costantino, J.P., Bierman, M.I., Donahoe, M.P., Rogers, R.M., Kreit, J.W., Sciurba, F.C., Stiller, R.A., Sanders, M.H. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Impact of architectural disruption on adrenocortical steroidogenesis in vitro. Hines, G.A., Azziz, R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Lack of an effect of dietary retinoids in chemical carcinogenesis of the mouse mammary gland: inverse relationship between mammary tumor cell anaplasia and retinoid efficacy. Welsch, C.W., DeHoog, J.V., Moon, R.C. Carcinogenesis (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Laryngoscopic intubation: learning and performance. Mulcaster, J.T., Mills, J., Hung, O.R., MacQuarrie, K., Law, J.A., Pytka, S., Imrie, D., Field, C. Anesthesiology (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Analysis of micronuclei and DNA single-strand breaks in mouse splenocytes and peripheral lymphocytes after oral administration of tetramethylthiuram disulfide (thiram). Villani, P., Andreoli, C., Crebelli, R., Pacchierotti, F., Zijno, A., Carere, A. Food Chem. Toxicol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Role of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in conjunction with the use of double-lumen tubes for thoracic anesthesia: a prospective study. Klein, U., Karzai, W., Bloos, F., Wohlfarth, M., Gottschall, R., Fritz, H., Gugel, M., Seifert, A. Anesthesiology (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Lightwand intubation is associated with less hemodynamic changes than fibreoptic intubation in normotensive, but not in hypertensive patients over the age of 60. Nishikawa, K., Kawamata, M., Namiki, A. Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthésie. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Comparison of rates of enamel synthesis in impeded and unimpeded rat incisors. Skobe, Z., Heeley, J.D., Dobeck, J.M., Prostak, K.S., Maravelis, L., Stern, D.N. J. Dent. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Intubating conditions and haemodynamic changes following thiopentone or propofol for early tracheal intubation. Wilmot, G., Bhimsan, N., Rocke, D.A., Murray, W.B. Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthésie. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Antagonism of selected ethanol-enhanced brain stimulation properties by Ro 15-4513. Musgrave, M.A., Randolph, A.D., Freedman, N.L. Alcohol (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Possible role of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in the down-regulation of adipose obese mRNA expression in rats re-fed a high-fat diet. Chang, M.L., Chen, H.L., Lu, S.C. J. Biomed. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Onset of action of mivacurium chloride. A comparison of neuromuscular blockade monitoring at the adductor pollicis and the orbicularis oculi. Sayson, S.C., Mongan, P.D. Anesthesiology (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. The effects of lactose on the absorption and retention of dietary lead. Bushnell, P.J., DeLuca, H.F. J. Nutr. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Eyeblink classical conditioning and interpositus nucleus activity are disrupted in adult rats exposed to ethanol as neonates. Green, J.T., Johnson, T.B., Goodlett, C.R., Steinmetz, J.E. Learn. Mem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Convulsive behaviour during alcohol dependence: discrimination between the role of intoxication and withdrawal. Ulrichsen, J., Clemmesen, L., Hemmingsen, R. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. PPAR alpha stimulates the rat gastrin-producing cell. Bakke, I., Hammer, T.A., Sandvik, A.K., Waldum, H.L. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Rapid-sequence intubation at an emergency medicine residency: success rate and adverse events during a two-year period. Tayal, V.S., Riggs, R.W., Marx, J.A., Tomaszewski, C.A., Schneider, R.E. Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. A new system for location of endotracheal tube in preterm and term neonates. Blayney, M., Costello, S., Perlman, M., Lui, K., Frank, J. Pediatrics (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. The LTA cannula and difficult intubations. Bourke, D.L. Anesthesiology (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Gastrointestinal absorption of Cd-metallothionein and cadmium chloride in mice. Sugawara, N., Sugawara, C. Arch. Toxicol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Nimodipine enhances growth and vascularization of neural grafts. Finger, S., Dunnett, S.B. Exp. Neurol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of periodic long-term ethanol administration on biliary bile acids and bile secretion in the rat. Jalovaara, P. Ann. Clin. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
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