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Chemical Compound Review

Oroxadin     2-[4-(2,2- dichlorocyclopropyl)phenoxy]- 2...

Synonyms: Lipanor, Modalim, Ciprol, Hiperlipen, Hyperlipen, ...
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Disease relevance of CCRIS 173


High impact information on CCRIS 173

  • Gene expression patterns in HCCs from Acox1(-/-) mice and in ciprofibrate-induced HCCs were least similar to those observed in human HCCs [6].
  • Peroxisome proliferator-induced hepatocarcinogenesis: histochemical analysis of ciprofibrate-induced preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity [7].
  • A significant increase in the volume density of peroxisomes, together with immunochemically detectable amounts of two peroxisome-associated enzymes, was observed in pancreas with hepatocytes of rats maintained on ciprofibrate [1].
  • Here we report the identification of such a transcriptionally active PPAR alpha-interacting cofactor (PRIC) complex from rat liver nuclear extracts that interacts with full-length PPAR alpha in the presence of ciprofibrate, a synthetic ligand, and leukotriene B(4), a natural ligand [8].
  • T3 inhibited ciprofibrate-induced luciferase activity as well as the endogenous peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes in transgenic mice carrying a 3.2-kb 5'-flanking region of the rat peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene fused to the coding region of luciferase [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of CCRIS 173


Biological context of CCRIS 173


Anatomical context of CCRIS 173

  • Gel retardation analysis with nuclear extracts demonstrated that ciprofibrate-treated or untreated H4IIEC3 cells, but not HeLa cells or monkey kidney cells, contained sequence-specific DNA binding factors that interact with the PPRE [2].
  • Characterization of ciprofibrate and clofibric acid as peroxisomal proliferators in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes [19].
  • The volume density of peroxisomes in transplanted hepatocytes increased 9.2- and 5.3-fold, respectively, in ciprofibrate- and DEHP-fed rats, whereas the volume density of mitochondria remained essentially unchanged [20].
  • Rats were fed the peroxisome proliferator ciprofibrate (0.025%), and the effects on the expression, modification, and localization of seven domain-specific integral proteins of the rat hepatocyte plasma membrane were assessed using a combination of immunoblotting, -precipitation, and -fluorescence [17].
  • In contrast, in the kidney, small intestine, and heart the increases in the mRNA levels of all three beta-oxidation genes were small and varied from 2- to 4-fold following ciprofibrate treatment [21].

Associations of CCRIS 173 with other chemical compounds

  • Young male F-344 rats transplanted with dissociated hepatocytes were fed either a control diet or a diet containing 0.025% ciprofibrate or 2% DEHP [22].
  • Treatment of LDLR-deficient mice with ciprofibrate caused a marked decrease in plasma apoB-48-carrying IDL and LDL but at the same time caused a large accumulation of triglyceride-depleted apoB-100-carrying IDL and LDL, resulting in a significant increase in plasma cholesterol levels [23].
  • The effects of ciprofibrate (100 mg/d) on apolipoprotein (apo)B- and apoAI-containing lipoprotein subclasses, cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer protein activity, and plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux were evaluated in 10 patients displaying type IIB hyperlipidemia [24].
  • Ciprofibrate treatment did not affect either endpoint, but catalase overexpression increased the concentrations of malondialdehyde (in untreated mice only) and conjugated dienes (in both untreated and ciprofibrate-fed mice) [25].
  • LY171883 and its structural analogue, LY189585, as well as the hypolipidaemic peroxisome proliferators clofibric acid, ciprofibrate, bezafibrate and WY14,643, displaced [3H]oleic acid binding to FABP [26].

Gene context of CCRIS 173

  • After 150 days of treatment with ciprofibrate, consistent with the increased plasma accumulation of apoB-100-carrying IDL and LDL, the LDLR-deficient mice displayed severe atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta [23].
  • Administration of dexamethasone to mice in combination with ciprofibrate produced expression of the acidic SBP2 at 23% of the control level and the basic SBP2 at 36%, a slightly moderated reduction compared with the decrease that occurred with ciprofibrate alone [27].
  • MMP-9 was specifically induced in CBS -/+ mice and inhibited by CF treatment [28].
  • The highest activation of LPL was obtained after treatment with 200 mg ciprofibrate/day [29].
  • A modest, but statistically significant, increase in HL activity was found after 100 or 200 mg ciprofibrate treatment [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CCRIS 173

  • In RH nodules the Ya subunit of glutathione-S-transferase B (GST-B) and the Yb subunit of GST-A were increased 2-4-fold as compared to normal liver or in replicating liver following a 70% partial hepatectomy, while in CP nodules the Yb subunit was unaltered and the Ya subunit increased 4-fold as compared to normal [30].
  • Electrophoretic mobility shift assay analysis showed that ciprofibrate elicited a concentration-dependent increase in the binding of nuclear extracts from cells of rat (Morris) and human (HepG2) origin to an ACO-peroxisome proliferator response element probe, although in HepG2 cells the increase was of marginal statistical significance [31].
  • Human HepG2 and rat Fao hepatic-derived cell lines show different responses to ciprofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator: analysis by flow cytometry [32].
  • Here we report that mRNA for alpha 2u-globulin, a rodent male specific protein, is markedly reduced or undetectable by Northern blot analysis of total RNA in the livers of rats treated with ciprofibrate [33].
  • Changes in the profile of liver proteins in rats following induction of peroxisome proliferation by ciprofibrate, Wy-14,643 and DEHP have been analysed by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis [34].


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  2. Identification of a peroxisome proliferator-responsive element upstream of the gene encoding rat peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Zhang, B., Marcus, S.L., Sajjadi, F.G., Alvares, K., Reddy, J.K., Subramani, S., Rachubinski, R.A., Capone, J.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Mouse steroid receptor coactivator-1 is not essential for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-regulated gene expression. Qi, C., Zhu, Y., Pan, J., Yeldandi, A.V., Rao, M.S., Maeda, N., Subbarao, V., Pulikuri, S., Hashimoto, T., Reddy, J.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
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  6. Application of comparative functional genomics to identify best-fit mouse models to study human cancer. Lee, J.S., Chu, I.S., Mikaelyan, A., Calvisi, D.F., Heo, J., Reddy, J.K., Thorgeirsson, S.S. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Peroxisome proliferator-induced hepatocarcinogenesis: histochemical analysis of ciprofibrate-induced preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity. Rao, M.S., Subbarao, V., Reddy, J.K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of a transcriptionally active peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha -interacting cofactor complex in rat liver and characterization of PRIC285 as a coactivator. Surapureddi, S., Yu, S., Bu, H., Hashimoto, T., Yeldandi, A.V., Kashireddy, P., Cherkaoui-Malki, M., Qi, C., Zhu, Y.J., Rao, M.S., Reddy, J.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Thyroid hormone (T3) inhibits ciprofibrate-induced transcription of genes encoding beta-oxidation enzymes: cross talk between peroxisome proliferator and T3 signaling pathways. Chu, R., Madison, L.D., Lin, Y., Kopp, P., Rao, M.S., Jameson, J.L., Reddy, J.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Plasma levels of HGF in rats treated with tumor promoters. Lindroos, P., Tsai, W.H., Zarnegar, R., Michalopoulos, G.K. Carcinogenesis (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Octreotide inhibits the enterochromaffin-like cell but not peroxisome proliferator-induced hypergastrinemia. Bakke, I., Sandvik, A.K., Waldum, H.L. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. The comparative pharmacokinetics and gastric toxicity of bezafibrate and ciprofibrate in the rat. Eason, C.T., Powles, P., Henry, G., Spencer, A.J., Pattison, A., Bonner, F.W. Xenobiotica (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of fibrates on plasma prothrombotic activity in patients with type IIb dyslipidemia. Okopien, B., Cwalina, L., Lebek, M., Kowalski, J., Zielinski, M., Wisniewska-Wanat, M., Kalina, Z., Herman, Z.S. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of hypolipidemic peroxisome proliferators on unscheduled DNA synthesis in cultured hepatocytes and on mutagenesis in Salmonella. Glauert, H.P., Reddy, J.K., Kennan, W.S., Sattler, G.L., Rao, V.S., Pitot, H.C. Cancer Lett. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Diverse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors bind to the peroxisome proliferator-responsive elements of the rat hydratase/dehydrogenase and fatty acyl-CoA oxidase genes but differentially induce expression. Marcus, S.L., Miyata, K.S., Zhang, B., Subramani, S., Rachubinski, R.A., Capone, J.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Inhibition of cell proliferation by ciprofibrate in glutathione S-transferase P1-1-positive rat hepatic hyperplastic nodules. Chen, Z.Y., Liu, Y.F., He, C.Y., White, C.C., Eaton, D.L. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Peroxisome proliferator-induced alterations in the expression and modification of rat hepatocyte plasma membrane proteins. Bartles, J.R., Khuon, S., Lin, X.H., Zhang, L.Q., Reddy, J.K., Rao, M.S., Isoye, S.T., Nehme, C.L., Fayos, B.E. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Peroxisome proliferators activate extracellular signal-regulated kinases in immortalized mouse liver cells. Rokos, C.L., Ledwith, B.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Characterization of ciprofibrate and clofibric acid as peroxisomal proliferators in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Feller, D.R., Singh, Y., Shirhatti, V.R., Kocarek, T.A., Liu, C.T., Krishna, G. Hepatology (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Response of hepatocytes transplanted into syngeneic hosts and heterotransplanted into athymic nude mice to peroxisome proliferators. Reddy, J.K., Jirtle, R.L., Watanabe, T.K., Reddy, N.K., Michalopoulos, G., Qureshi, S.A. Cancer Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Comparison of constitutive and inducible levels of expression of peroxisomal beta-oxidation and catalase genes in liver and extrahepatic tissues of rat. Nemali, M.R., Usuda, N., Reddy, M.K., Oyasu, K., Hashimoto, T., Osumi, T., Rao, M.S., Reddy, J.K. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Induction of peroxisome proliferation in hepatocytes transplanted into the anterior chamber of the eye. A model system for the evaluation of xenobiotic-induced effects. Rao, M.S., Thorgeirsson, S., Reddy, M.K., Lalwani, N.D., Evarts, R.E., Usman, M.I., Singh, B., Reddy, J.K. Am. J. Pathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonist ciprofibrate inhibits apolipoprotein B mRNA editing in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice: effects on plasma lipoproteins and the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Fu, T., Mukhopadhyay, D., Davidson, N.O., Borensztajn, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Action of ciprofibrate in type IIb hyperlipoproteinemia: modulation of the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype and stimulation of high-density lipoprotein-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux. Guerin, M., Le Goff, W., Frisdal, E., Schneider, S., Milosavljevic, D., Bruckert, E., Chapman, M.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Effect of the peroxisome proliferator ciprofibrate on lipid peroxidation and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation in transgenic mice with elevated hepatic catalase activity. Nilakantan, V., Spear, B.T., Glauert, H.P. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Interaction of LY171883 and other peroxisome proliferators with fatty-acid-binding protein isolated from rat liver. Cannon, J.R., Eacho, P.I. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Mouse liver selenium-binding protein decreased in abundance by peroxisome proliferators. Giometti, C.S., Liang, X., Tollaksen, S.L., Wall, D.B., Lubman, D.M., Subbarao, V., Rao, M.S. Electrophoresis (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Peroxisome proliferator ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in a murine model of hyperhomocysteinemia. Sood, H.S., Hunt, M.J., Tyagi, S.C. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Pharmacodynamic activity of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase, and pharmacokinetic parameters measured in normolipidaemic subjects receiving ciprofibrate (100 or 200 mg/day) or micronised fenofibrate (200 mg/day) therapy for 23 days. Desager, J.P., Horsmans, Y., Vandenplas, C., Harvengt, C. Atherosclerosis (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Coordinate polypeptide expression during hepatocarcinogenesis in male F-344 rats: comparison of the Solt-Farber and Reddy models. Wirth, P.J., Rao, M.S., Evarts, R.P. Cancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. Differences in the formation of PPARalpha-RXR/acoPPRE complexes between responsive and nonresponsive species upon fibrate administration. Rodríguez, C., Noé, V., Cabrero, A., Ciudad, C.J., Laguna, J.C. Mol. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Human HepG2 and rat Fao hepatic-derived cell lines show different responses to ciprofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator: analysis by flow cytometry. Passilly, P., Jannin, B., Hassell, S.J., Latruffe, N. Exp. Cell Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Ciprofibrate represses alpha 2u-globulin expression in liver and inhibits d-limonene nephrotoxicity. Alvares, K., Subbarao, V., Rao, M.S., Reddy, J.K. Carcinogenesis (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Specific changes in the protein composition of rat liver in response to the peroxisome proliferators ciprofibrate, Wy-14,643 and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Watanabe, T., Lalwani, N.D., Reddy, J.K. Biochem. J. (1985) [Pubmed]
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