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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Thinness

  • Patients with medulloblastoma and ependymoma who relapsed were older at tumour diagnosis, underweight at the start of GH therapy, and entered puberty later than similar relapse-free patients [1].
  • RESULTS: Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), both as absolute and percent predicted, differed significantly among the three groups, being lowest in the underweight and highest in the overweight patients [2].
  • The authors report that the mean CSF oxytocin level of five underweight women with restricting anorexia, but not 12 underweight bulimic anorexic women or 35 normal-weight women with bulimia nervosa, was significantly lower than the level of 11 control subjects [3].
  • CSF 5-HIAA concentrations in anorexia nervosa: reduced values in underweight subjects normalize after weight gain [4].
  • Both GHBP and SD score-leptin significantly increased according to BMI within the range from 18-27 kg/m2, whereas no significant differences were found among underweight groups (BMI, < 18 kg/m2) or among obesity grades (BMI, > 27 kg/m2) [5].

High impact information on Thinness


Chemical compound and disease context of Thinness


Biological context of Thinness


Anatomical context of Thinness

  • The underweight swine had a significantly lower leukocyte count, plasma protein level and blood glucose level, but a significantly higher plasma LDH level [18].
  • Mononuclear leukocyte (MNL) beta 2-adrenergic receptors and their coupled adenylate cyclase system were studied in underweight anorectics (n = 12), weight-recovered anorectics (n = 8), bulimics (n = 8), and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 39) [19].
  • In conclusion, a decrease in plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids in relation to hypermetabolism, possibly resulting from the severity of COPD and respiratory muscle weakness, and various disturbances in plasma amino-acid levels were found in underweight COPD patients [20].
  • A significant decrease in CD2 (pan T-cells) and CD4 (T-helper) lymphocyte subpopulations, but unchanged CD8 (T-suppressor) subset, and a reduced response in delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity tests were observed in senile underweight anorectic patients [21].
  • In the latter stages of the disease most DMD subjects become underweight because of an acceleration in skeletal muscle protein degradation relative to its synthesis [22].

Gene context of Thinness

  • Additionally, the coding region of GHSR was systematically screened, and seven sequence variants were identified in 93 obese, 96 normal weight, and 94 underweight individuals and 43 children with short normal stature (SNS) [14].
  • Peak hGH-V levels occurred at wk 36.5 +/- 2.6 and were significantly lower in obese (P = 0.029) and higher in underweight (P = 0.035) mothers compared with those in mothers of normal weight [23].
  • Elderly underweight anorectic patients had significantly lower levels of beta-endorphin but increased concentrations of NPY in both plasma and CSF when compared to controls [24].
  • CONCLUSION: IGF-1, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 clearly classify over- and underweight prepubertal children, showing a good correlation with BMI [25].
  • Extended samples of these cohorts (160 obese children and adolescents; mean body mass index (BMI) 33.5 +/- 6.4 kg/m2, 128 underweight subjects; mean BMI 18.4 +/- 1.0 kg/m2 and 58 patients with AN; mean BMI 14.6 +/- 1.7 kg/m2) were screened to determine the frequencies of a detected mutation and a detected polymorphism in the NPY Y5 receptor gene [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Thinness


  1. Does growth hormone cause relapse of brain tumours? Clayton, P.E., Shalet, S.M., Gattamaneni, H.R., Price, D.A. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Anthropometric and pulmonary function test profiles of outpatients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sahebjami, H., Doers, J.T., Render, M.L., Bond, T.L. Am. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. CSF oxytocin in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: clinical and pathophysiologic considerations. Demitrack, M.A., Lesem, M.D., Listwak, S.J., Brandt, H.A., Jimerson, D.C., Gold, P.W. The American journal of psychiatry. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. CSF 5-HIAA concentrations in anorexia nervosa: reduced values in underweight subjects normalize after weight gain. Kaye, W.H., Gwirtsman, H.E., George, D.T., Jimerson, D.C., Ebert, M.H. Biol. Psychiatry (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Growth hormone-binding protein directly depends on serum leptin levels in adults with different nutritional status. Llopis, M.A., Granada, M.L., Cuatrecasas, G., Formiguera, X., Sánchez-Planell, L., Sanmartí, A., Alastrué, A., Rull, M., Corominas, A., Foz, M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in anorexia nervosa. Pathophysiologic mechanisms in underweight and weight-corrected patients. Gold, P.W., Gwirtsman, H., Avgerinos, P.C., Nieman, L.K., Gallucci, W.T., Kaye, W., Jimerson, D., Ebert, M., Rittmaster, R., Loriaux, D.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Altered cerebrospinal fluid neuropeptide Y and peptide YY immunoreactivity in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Kaye, W.H., Berrettini, W., Gwirtsman, H., George, D.T. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Central and peripheral ACTH and cortisol levels in anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Gwirtsman, H.E., Kaye, W.H., George, D.T., Jimerson, D.C., Ebert, M.H., Gold, P.W. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Abnormalities in CNS monoamine metabolism in anorexia nervosa. Kaye, W.H., Ebert, M.H., Raleigh, M., Lake, R. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Altered islet amyloid polypeptide (amylin) gene expression in rat models of diabetes. Bretherton-Watt, D., Ghatei, M.A., Bloom, S.R., Jamal, H., Ferrier, G.J., Girgis, S.I., Legon, S. Diabetologia (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of moderate doses of vitamin A as an adjunct to the treatment of pneumonia in underweight and normal-weight children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Rodríguez, A., Hamer, D.H., Rivera, J., Acosta, M., Salgado, G., Gordillo, M., Cabezas, M., Naranjo-Pinto, C., Leguísamo, J., Gómez, D., Fuenmayor, G., Játiva, E., Guamán, G., Estrella, B., Sempértegui, F. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Influence of nutritional status on the pharmacokinetics of acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolites in children with autoimmune disease. Lares-Asseff, I., Flores-Pérez, J., Juárez-Olguín, H., Ramírez-Lacayo, M., Loredo-Abdalá, A., Carbajal-Rodríguez, L. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Administration of growth hormone to underweight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A prospective, randomized, controlled study. Burdet, L., de Muralt, B., Schutz, Y., Pichard, C., Fitting, J.W. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Ghrelin receptor gene: identification of several sequence variants in extremely obese children and adolescents, healthy normal-weight and underweight students, and children with short normal stature. Wang, H.J., Geller, F., Dempfle, A., Schäuble, N., Friedel, S., Lichtner, P., Fontenla-Horro, F., Wudy, S., Hagemann, S., Gortner, L., Huse, K., Remschmidt, H., Bettecken, T., Meitinger, T., Schäfer, H., Hebebrand, J., Hinney, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. The associations of body mass index, C-peptide and metabolic status in Chinese Type 2 diabetic patients. Chan, W.B., Tong, P.C., Chow, C.C., So, W.Y., Ng, M.C., Ma, R.C., Osaki, R., Cockram, C.S., Chan, J.C. Diabet. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Total energy expenditure in underweight patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease living at home. Slinde, F., Ellegård, L., Grönberg, A.M., Larsson, S., Rossander-Hulthén, L. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Body composition analysis by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and exercise performance in underweight patients with COPD. Yoshikawa, M., Yoneda, T., Kobayashi, A., Fu, A., Takenaka, H., Narita, N., Nezu, K. Chest (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Basic cardiovascular parameters in the underweight neonatal swine. DeRoth, L., Downie, H.G. Biol. Neonate (1978) [Pubmed]
  19. Beta 2-adrenergic receptor regulation in circulating mononuclear leukocytes in anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Lonati-Galligani, M., Pirke, K.M. Psychiatry research. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Plasma levels of amino acids and hypermetabolism in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Yoneda, T., Yoshikawa, M., Fu, A., Tsukaguchi, K., Okamoto, Y., Takenaka, H. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Cell-mediated immune response and cytokine production in idiopathic senile anorexia. Arnalich, F., Hernanz, A., Vázquez, J.J., Amores, A. Mech. Ageing Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Nutritional aspects of neuromuscular diseases. McCrory, M.A., Wright, N.C., Kilmer, D.D. Physical medicine and rehabilitation clinics of North America. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. A new nonisotopic, highly sensitive assay for the measurement of human placental growth hormone: development and clinical implications. Wu, Z., Bidlingmaier, M., Friess, S.C., Kirk, S.E., Buchinger, P., Schiessl, B., Strasburger, C.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Alterations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of neuropeptides in idiopathic senile anorexia. Martinez, M., Hernanz, A., Gómez-Cerezo, J., Peña, J.M., Vazquez, J.J., Arnalich, F. Regul. Pept. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. IGF-1 and its binding proteins IGFBP-1 and 3 as nutritional markers in prepubertal children. Martínez de Icaya, P., Fernández, C., Vázquez, C., del Olmo, D., Alcázar, V., Hernández, M. Ann. Nutr. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Screening for mutations in the neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor gene in cohorts belonging to different weight extremes. Rosenkranz, K., Hinney, A., Ziegler, A., von Prittwitz, S., Barth, N., Roth, H., Mayer, H., Siegfried, W., Lehmkuhl, G., Poustka, F., Schmidt, M., Schäfer, H., Remschmidt, H., Hebebrand, J. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. The association between obesity and screening mammography accuracy. Elmore, J.G., Carney, P.A., Abraham, L.A., Barlow, W.E., Egger, J.R., Fosse, J.S., Cutter, G.R., Hendrick, R.E., D'Orsi, C.J., Paliwal, P., Taplin, S.H. Arch. Intern. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Empirically derived dietary patterns and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a large prospective cohort study. Velie, E.M., Schairer, C., Flood, A., He, J.P., Khattree, R., Schatzkin, A. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Brain hypometabolism of glucose in anorexia nervosa: a PET scan study. Delvenne, V., Lotstra, F., Goldman, S., Biver, F., De Maertelaer, V., Appelboom-Fondu, J., Schoutens, A., Bidaut, L.M., Luxen, A., Mendelwicz, J. Biol. Psychiatry (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Impaired reduction of enhanced levels of dehydroepiandrosterone by oral dexamethasone in anorexia nervosa. Monteleone, P., Luisi, M., Martiadis, V., Serritella, C., Longobardi, N., Casarosa, E., Genazzani, A.R., Maj, M. Psychoneuroendocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary ovarian axis in hypothyroid rats with or without triiodothyronine replacement. Ortega, E., Rodriguez, E., Ruiz, E., Osorio, C. Life Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
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