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MeSH Review

Vaginal Smears

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Disease relevance of Vaginal Smears


High impact information on Vaginal Smears

  • The patients had Tanner II to IV pubertal development, advanced bone age, an estrogen effect on vaginal smear, measurable basal gonadotropin levels with pulsed nocturnal secretion, and a pubertal gonadotropin response to LHRH [6].
  • HPV typing in cervical smears was performed by use of a polymerase chain reaction-based assay [7].
  • RESULTS: The presence of HPV16 VLP-specific IgGs in the plasma of the patients was found to be associated with the presence of HPV16 DNA in the cervical smear [7].
  • The positive predictive value of cervical smears in previously screened postmenopausal women: the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) [8].
  • This evaluation, which should include a careful history, pelvic examination, and Papanicolaou smear, should be repeated annually while the patient is receiving tamoxifen [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Vaginal Smears


Biological context of Vaginal Smears


Anatomical context of Vaginal Smears

  • The occurrence of ovulation could be determined reliably from a change in the ratio of cornified to basal epithelial cells in vaginal smears, and luteal activity could be assessed reliably from daily measurements of urinary pregnanediol [20].
  • Animals made pseudopregnant by cervical stimulation were ovariectomized on Day 1 (the first appearance of leukocytes in the vaginal smear) and injected for 6 days with sesame oil, 0.1-10.0 micrograms estrone, 2.0 mg progesterone, or 1.0 microgram estrone + 2.0 mg progesterone [21].
  • Casts were made on Days 4, 5 and 6 of pregnancy (Day 1 = the day of finding spermatozoa in the vaginal smear), implantation sites being identified by an i.v. injection of Evans' blue before casting [22].
  • During the experiment, vaginal smears were taken daily and at the end of 14 days all animals were sacrificed, trunk blood was taken for serum estradiol, LH and FSH measurements and the uterus and ovaries were removed and weighed [23].
  • Simultaneous determinations of LDH activity in the vaginal epithelium and the maturation index of the vaginal smear were performed for 7 postmenopausal women receiving estrogen therapy and for 4 premenopausal women [24].

Associations of Vaginal Smears with chemical compounds


Gene context of Vaginal Smears

  • Finally, transferrin-binding lipoprotein (TbpB) was detected on gonococci in vaginal smears, suggesting that although gonococci replicate within the genital tracts of mice, they may be sufficiently iron-stressed to express iron-repressible proteins [30].
  • Eight of 10 informative cases with an abnormal Papanicolaou smear showed E-cadherin only at the basal layers [31].
  • New cervical smears were obtained from 24 patients with a cytologic diagnosis of typical condyloma for a cytochemical assay of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity in the koilocytes that are pathognomonic of this lesion [32].
  • In the last group a significant negative correlation (R = -0.72) was found between the vaginal estrogen receptor level and the Maturation Value of the vaginal smear; no correlations were found between the receptor level and the plasma levels of estrone, estradiol, LH, FSH and SHBG [33].
  • The distribution of three tumor markers, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and prekeratin (PK) was studied in exfoliated epithelial cells in cervical smears using an immunoalkaline phosphatase staining technique to demonstrate the antigens [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Vaginal Smears


  1. Improvement in cervical dysplasia associated with folic acid therapy in users of oral contraceptives. Butterworth, C.E., Hatch, K.D., Gore, H., Mueller, H., Krumdieck, C.L. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. General primer-mediated polymerase chain reaction permits the detection of sequenced and still unsequenced human papillomavirus genotypes in cervical scrapes and carcinomas. van den Brule, A.J., Snijders, P.J., Gordijn, R.L., Bleker, O.P., Meijer, C.J., Walboomers, J.M. Int. J. Cancer (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Sequence variants of human papillomavirus type 16 in clinical samples permit verification and extension of epidemiological studies and construction of a phylogenetic tree. Ho, L., Chan, S.Y., Chow, V., Chong, T., Tay, S.K., Villa, L.L., Bernard, H.U. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Endocervical adenocarcinomas associated with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a report of four cases with histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses. Kondo, T., Hashi, A., Murata, S., Nakazawa, T., Yuminamochi, T., Nara, M., Hoshi, K., Katoh, R. Mod. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers: reduced by condom use but not by a limited periodic examination program. Sánchez, J., Gotuzzo, E., Escamilla, J., Carrillo, C., Moreyra, L., Stamm, W., Ashley, R., Swenson, P., Holmes, K.K. Sexually transmitted diseases. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Short-term treatment of idiopathic precocious puberty with a long-acting analogue of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. A preliminary report. Comite, F., Cutler, G.B., Rivier, J., Vale, W.W., Loriaux, D.L., Crowley, W.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Immunoglobulin G responses against human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles in a prospective nonintervention cohort study of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. de Gruijl, T.D., Bontkes, H.J., Walboomers, J.M., Schiller, J.T., Stukart, M.J., Groot, B.S., Chabaud, M.M., Remmink, A.J., Verheijen, R.H., Helmerhorst, T.J., Meijer, C.J., Scheper, R.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. The positive predictive value of cervical smears in previously screened postmenopausal women: the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS). Sawaya, G.F., Grady, D., Kerlikowske, K., Valleur, J.L., Barnabei, V.M., Bass, K., Snyder, T.E., Pickar, J.H., Agarwal, S.K., Mandelblatt, J. Ann. Intern. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Surveillance for endometrial cancer in women receiving tamoxifen. Suh-Burgmann, E.J., Goodman, A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Plasma levels of oestrone and oestradiol-17beta in postmenopausal women. Badawy, S.Z., Elliott, L.J., Elbadawi, A., Marshall, L.D. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. The prognostic value in threatened abortion of plasma progesterone values and the cornification index of vaginal smears. El Maraghy, M.A., Lamki, H., Pinkerton, J.H., Sheridan, B. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (1978) [Pubmed]
  12. Are Papanicolaou smears enough? Acetic acid washes of the cervix as adjunctive therapy: a HARNET study. Harrisburg Area Research Network. Slawson, D.C., Bennett, J.H., Herman, J.M. The Journal of family practice. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Colorectal cancer-screening tests and associated health behaviors. Shapiro, J.A., Seeff, L.C., Nadel, M.R. American journal of preventive medicine. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl quinone levels in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. Palan, P.R., Woodall, A.L., Anderson, P.S., Mikhail, M.S. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Melatonin secretion decreases during the proestrous stage of the rat estrous cycle. Ozaki, Y., Wurtman, R.J., Alonso, R., Lynch, H.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Protein undernutrition-induced bone loss is associated with decreased IGF-I levels and estrogen deficiency. Ammann, P., Bourrin, S., Bonjour, J.P., Meyer, J.M., Rizzoli, R. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Neuropeptide Y administered chronically into the lateral ventricle profoundly inhibits both the gonadotropic and the somatotropic axis in intact adult female rats. Catzeflis, C., Pierroz, D.D., Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F., Rivier, J.E., Sizonenko, P.C., Aubert, M.L. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Keratinocyte growth factor injected into female mouse neonates stimulates uterine and vaginal epithelial growth. Hom, Y.K., Young, P., Thomson, A.A., Cunha, G.R. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Aging and the regulation of luteinizing hormone in C57BL/6J mice: impaired elevations after ovariectomy and spontaneous elevations at advanced ages. Gee, D.M., Flurkey, K., Finch, C.E. Biol. Reprod. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Relationships between ovarian morphology, vaginal cytology, serum progesterone, and urinary immunoreactive pregnanediol during the menstrual cycle of the cynomolgus monkey. Mehta, R.R., Jenco, J.M., Gaynor, L.V., Chatterton, R.T. Biol. Reprod. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Role of ovarian steroid hormones in the regulation of adenylate cyclase during early progestation. Bekairi, A.M., Sanders, R.B., Abulaban, F.S., Yochim, J.M. Biol. Reprod. (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Changes in the spatial organization of the uterine vasculature during implantation in the rat. Rogers, P.W., Murphy, C.R., Gannon, B.J. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. The role of estrogen in the feedback regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion in the female rat. Bhatnagar, A.S., Batzl, C., Häusler, A., Nogués, V. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Relationship between the maturation index and lactate dehydrogenase activity in human vaginal epithelium. Punnonen, R., Lukola, A., Näse, M., Söderström, K.O. Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. Common antigenic sites on exfoliated cells derived from cervical carcinoma and in tumor cells of nonuterine origin as demonstrated by monoclonal antibodies in immunoperoxidase assay. Koprowska, I., Zipfel, S.A., Himes, T.R., Herlyn, M. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. The epithelial differentiating activity in vivo of (E)-4-[2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthylenyl) -1-propenyl]benzoic acid and 4,4-difluororetinoic acid. Miller, D.A., Stephens-Jarnagin, A., DeLuca, H.F. Biochem. J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Subchronic administration of fluoxetine impairs estrous behavior in intact female rats. Matuszczyk, J.V., Larsson, K., Eriksson, E. Neuropsychopharmacology (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Papanicolaou tests and molecular analyses using new fluid-based specimen collection technology in 3000 Japanese women. Masumoto, N., Fujii, T., Ishikawa, M., Mukai, M., Saito, M., Iwata, T., Fukuchi, T., Kubushiro, K., Tsukazaki, K., Nozawa, S. Br. J. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. A new vaginal smear assay for vitamin A in rats. Sietsema, W.K., DeLuca, H.F. J. Nutr. (1982) [Pubmed]
  30. Growth of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the female mouse genital tract does not require the gonococcal transferrin or hemoglobin receptors and may be enhanced by commensal lactobacilli. Jerse, A.E., Crow, E.T., Bordner, A.N., Rahman, I., Cornelissen, C.N., Moench, T.R., Mehrazar, K. Infect. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Aberrant expression of E-cadherin in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia correlates with a false-negative Papanicolaou smear. Felix, J.C., Lonky, N.M., Tamura, K., Yu, K.J., Naidu, Y., Lai, C.R., Lonky, S.A. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Cytochemical assay of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in koilocytes. Palaoro, L., Rossi, L., Mallol, S. Acta Cytol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  33. Estrogen receptors in human vaginal tissue. Wiegerink, M.A., Poortman, J., Agema, A.R., Thijssen, J.H. Maturitas. (1980) [Pubmed]
  34. Tumor marker studies of cervical smears. Potential for automation. Moncrieff, D., Ormerod, M.G., Coleman, D.V. Acta Cytol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  35. Telomerase activity as a biomarker for (pre)neoplastic cervical disease in scrapings and frozen sections from patients with abnormal cervical smear. Wisman, G.B., Hollema, H., de Jong, S., ter Schegget, J., Tjong-A-Hung, S.P., Ruiters, M.H., Krans, M., de Vries, E.G., van der Zee, A.G. J. Clin. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Chemoprevention of cervical cancer with folic acid: a phase III Southwest Oncology Group Intergroup study. Childers, J.M., Chu, J., Voigt, L.F., Feigl, P., Tamimi, H.K., Franklin, E.W., Alberts, D.S., Meyskens, F.L. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. Intermethod variation in detection of human papillomavirus DNA in cervical smears. Smits, H.L., Bollen, L.J., Tjong-A-Hung, S.P., Vonk, J., Van Der Velden, J., Ten Kate, F.J., Kaan, J.A., Mol, B.W., Ter Schegget, J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  38. Validity of women's self-reports of cancer screening test utilization in a managed care population. Caplan, L.S., McQueen, D.V., Qualters, J.R., Leff, M., Garrett, C., Calonge, N. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Detection and typing of human papillomaviruses present in fixed and stained archival cervical smears by a consensus polymerase chain reaction and direct sequence analysis allow the identification of a broad spectrum of human papillomavirus types. Smits, H.L., Tieben, L.M., Tjong-A-Hung, S.P., Jebbink, M.F., Minnaar, R.P., Jansen, C.L., ter Schegget, J. J. Gen. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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