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MeSH Review

Verbal Learning

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Disease relevance of Verbal Learning


Psychiatry related information on Verbal Learning


High impact information on Verbal Learning

  • On the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, long-term users recalled significantly fewer words than either shorter-term users (P =.001) or controls (P =.005); there was no difference between shorter-term users and controls [11].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine if the APOE epsilon4 allele increases susceptibility to lorazepam-induced verbal learning impairment in nondemented older adults [12].
  • During uptake of fludeoxyglucose F 18, all patients performed a serial verbal learning test [13].
  • RESULTS: In the group first treated with nifedipine, the summed recall score on the Buschke selective reminding test (a test of verbal learning and memory) decreased by 9.3 words (95% CI, 2.8 to 15.6 words), or 0%, during nifedipine treatment compared with placebo (P = 0.031) [14].
  • In the anterior two-thirds temporal lobectomy group, age regression of verbal learning became steeper after surgery, and consolidation/retrieval was negatively correlated with older age and later onset of epilepsy even before surgery [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Verbal Learning

  • Verbal memory performance was assessed with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. RESULTS: Mean cortical [(123)I]beta-CIT-labeled 5-HT transporter density was significantly lower in recent MDMA users than in controls (1.17 vs. 1.28 [-9%]) but not in ex-MDMA users (1.24 vs. 1.28 [-3%]) [16].
  • METHODS: Thirty-seven cocaine abusers and 27 control subjects were administered the following memory and mood measures: California Verbal Learning Test, recall of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Pursuit Rotor Task, and Profile of Mood States at 4 visits (within 72 hours of admission and at 10, 21, and 45 days following abstinence) [17].
  • RESULTS: Women and younger participants had higher dopamine availability in the caudate nucleus, and these groups also performed better on verbal learning tasks [18].
  • We used the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test to evaluate two aspects of memory function thought to be sensitive to the effects of aging: learning (acquisition) and delayed recall (forgetting) [19].
  • We measured folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine concentrations in fasting blood samples and cognitive performance by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), National Adult Reading Test (NART), Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), digit symbol (DS) subtest, and block design (BD) subtest [20].

Biological context of Verbal Learning


Anatomical context of Verbal Learning

  • RESULTS: Impairment was most frequent on measures sensitive to frontal lobe function (67% on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test number of categories, 30% on letter fluency, 30% on verbal learning) [22].
  • The results confirmed the role of the right hippocampus in visuo-spatial memory tasks (object location, Rey-Osterrieth Figure with and without delay) and the left for verbal memory tasks (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task with delay) [23].
  • Confirmatory factor analysis of the california verbal learning test in patients with epilepsy: relationship to clinical and neuropathological markers of temporal lobe epilepsy [24].
  • There were modest (r = 0.35) but significant correlations between corpus striatum degeneration and the delayed recall trial and total score of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, but no other correlations between neuropsychological and corpus striatal surface area were significant [25].

Gene context of Verbal Learning

  • After the last treatment, nonverbal memory performance was negatively associated with the maximum ACTH level after ECT and verbal learning was negatively correlated to the maximum cortisol level [26].
  • Poorer performances in verbal learning and vigilance and greater ADHD behaviors during a math task also distinguished the ADHD from control teenagers [27].
  • RESULTS: There were no significant associations between sex hormone or SHBG concentrations and performance on a series of cognitive tasks measuring global and executive function, visual and verbal learning and memory [28].
  • Less S-100 protein release was associated with better neuropsychological performance, as indexed by significant correlations with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning memory test, descending Critical Flicker Fusion thresholds, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression rating scales, typically around r=0 [29].
  • CONCLUSIONS--Young, asymptomatic adults at very high genetic risk for HD are unimpaired in tests of verbal learning and memory and oculomotor functioning [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Verbal Learning


  1. Evidence for cortical dysfunction in clinically non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease: a proton MR spectroscopy study. Hu, M.T., Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Chaudhuri, K.R., Bell, J.D., Morris, R.G., Clough, C., Brooks, D.J., Turjanski, N. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Cognitive functions in tardive dyskinesia. Wolf, M.E., Ryan, J.J., Mosnaim, A.D. Psychological medicine. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Performance on the California Verbal Learning Test after traumatic brain injury. Wiegner, S., Donders, J. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology : official journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. California Verbal Learning Test indicators of suboptimal performance in a sample of head-injury litigants. Slick, D.J., Iverson, G.L., Green, P. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology : official journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Awareness of remembering achieved through automatic and conscious processes in multiple sclerosis. Scarrabelotti, M., Carroll, M. Brain and cognition. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Impairment of executive function but not memory in first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar I disorder and in euthymic patients with unipolar depression. Clark, L., Sarna, A., Goodwin, G.M. The American journal of psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Altered NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist response in individuals with a family vulnerability to alcoholism. Petrakis, I.L., Limoncelli, D., Gueorguieva, R., Jatlow, P., Boutros, N.N., Trevisan, L., Gelernter, J., Krystal, J.H. The American journal of psychiatry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Memory complaints and APOE-epsilon4 accelerate cognitive decline in cognitively normal elderly. Dik, M.G., Jonker, C., Comijs, H.C., Bouter, L.M., Twisk, J.W., van Kamp, G.J., Deeg, D.J. Neurology (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Learning and memory in Holocaust survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder. Yehuda, R., Golier, J.A., Halligan, S.L., Harvey, P.D. Biol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. The short test of mental status. Correlations with standardized psychometric testing. Kokmen, E., Smith, G.E., Petersen, R.C., Tangalos, E., Ivnik, R.C. Arch. Neurol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Cognitive functioning of long-term heavy cannabis users seeking treatment. Solowij, N., Stephens, R.S., Roffman, R.A., Babor, T., Kadden, R., Miller, M., Christiansen, K., McRee, B., Vendetti, J. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele and lorazepam effects on memory in high-functioning older adults. Pomara, N., Willoughby, L., Wesnes, K., Greenblatt, D.J., Sidtis, J.J. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Dorsal striatal size, shape, and metabolic rate in never-medicated and previously medicated schizophrenics performing a verbal learning task. Shihabuddin, L., Buchsbaum, M.S., Hazlett, E.A., Haznedar, M.M., Harvey, P.D., Newman, A., Schnur, D.B., Spiegel-Cohen, J., Wei, T., Machac, J., Knesaurek, K., Vallabhajosula, S., Biren, M.A., Ciaravolo, T.M., Luu-Hsia, C. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Atenolol compared with nifedipine: effect on cognitive function and mood in elderly hypertensive patients. Skinner, M.H., Futterman, A., Morrissette, D., Thompson, L.W., Hoffman, B.B., Blaschke, T.F. Ann. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Interaction of cognitive aging and memory deficits related to epilepsy surgery. Helmstaedter, C., Reuber, M., Elger, C.C. Ann. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Cortical serotonin transporter density and verbal memory in individuals who stopped using 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy"): preliminary findings. Reneman, L., Lavalaye, J., Schmand, B., de Wolff, F.A., van den Brink, W., den Heeten, G.J., Booij, J. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Declarative and procedural memory functioning in abstinent cocaine abusers. van Gorp, W.G., Wilkins, J.N., Hinkin, C.H., Moore, L.H., Hull, J., Horner, M.D., Plotkin, D. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Striatal dopamine transporters and cognitive functioning in healthy men and women. Mozley, L.H., Gur, R.C., Mozley, P.D., Gur, R.E. The American journal of psychiatry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Memory function in normal aging. Petersen, R.C., Smith, G., Kokmen, E., Ivnik, R.J., Tangalos, E.G. Neurology (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Homocysteine, B vitamin status, and cognitive function in the elderly. Duthie, S.J., Whalley, L.J., Collins, A.R., Leaper, S., Berger, K., Deary, I.J. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Integrating clinical assessment with cognitive neuroscience: construct validation of the California Verbal Learning Test. Delis, D.C., Freeland, J., Kramer, J.H., Kaplan, E. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Cognitive impairments in advanced PD without dementia. Green, J., McDonald, W.M., Vitek, J.L., Evatt, M., Freeman, A., Haber, M., Bakay, R.A., Triche, S., Sirockman, B., DeLong, M.R. Neurology (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Spatial memory deficits in patients with lesions to the right hippocampus and to the right parahippocampal cortex. Bohbot, V.D., Kalina, M., Stepankova, K., Spackova, N., Petrides, M., Nadel, L. Neuropsychologia. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Confirmatory factor analysis of the california verbal learning test in patients with epilepsy: relationship to clinical and neuropathological markers of temporal lobe epilepsy. Banos, J.H., Roth, D.L., Palmer, C., Morawetz, R., Knowlton, R., Faught, E., Kuzniecky, R., Bilir, E., Martin, R.C. Neuropsychology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Corpus striatum and traumatic brain injury. Primus, E.A., Bigler, E.D., Anderson, C.V., Johnson, S.C., Mueller, R.M., Blatter, D. Brain injury : [BI]. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of electroconvulsive therapy on neuropsychological function and circulating levels of ACTH, cortisol, prolactin, and TSH in patients with major depressive illness. Apéria, B., Bergman, H., Engelbrektson, K., Thorén, M., Wetterberg, L. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Adolescents with ADHD: patterns of behavioral adjustment, academic functioning, and treatment utilization. Barkley, R.A., Anastopoulos, A.D., Guevremont, D.C., Fletcher, K.E. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Association of sex steroid hormones with brain morphology and cognition in healthy elderly men. Lessov-Schlaggar, C.N., Reed, T., Swan, G.E., Krasnow, R.E., DeCarli, C., Marcus, R., Holloway, L., Wolf, P.A., Carmelli, D. Neurology (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Neuropsychological change and S-100 protein release in 130 unselected patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Kilminster, S., Treasure, T., McMillan, T., Holt, D.W. Stroke (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Unimpaired verbal memory and oculomotor control in asymptomatic adults with the genetic marker for Huntington's disease. Rothlind, J.C., Brandt, J., Zee, D., Codori, A.M., Folstein, S. Arch. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Chronic MDMA (ecstasy) use, cognition and mood. McCardle, K., Luebbers, S., Carter, J.D., Croft, R.J., Stough, C. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Relationship of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scale to hepatic encephalopathy, as defined by electroencephalography and neuropsychometric testing, and ascites. Yoo, H.Y., Edwin, D., Thuluvath, P.J. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Reduced neuropsychologic measures as predictors of treatment outcome in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Grossi, M.L., Goldberg, M.B., Locker, D., Tenenbaum, H.C. Journal of orofacial pain. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Quantitative evidence for neuroanatomic and neuropsychological markers in dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Zakzanis, K.K. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology : official journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. (1998) [Pubmed]
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