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Chemical Compound Review

D-mannose     (2S,3S,4S,5S,6R)-6- (hydroxymethyl)oxane-2...

Synonyms: alpha-Mannose, alpha-D-Man, SureCN76882, CHEBI:28729, ZINC03860903, ...
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Disease relevance of glucose

  • Although FaGT2 glucosylates a number of aromatic acids in vitro, quantitative analysis in transgenic lines containing an antisense construct of FaGT2 under the control of the constitutive 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter demonstrated that the enzyme is only involved in the formation of cinnamoyl Glc and p-coumaroyl Glc during ripening [1].
  • beta-Glucosyltransferase (BGT) is a DNA-modifying enzyme encoded by bacteriophage T4 which catalyses the transfer of glucose (Glc) from uridine diphosphoglucose (UDP-Glc) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-HMC) in double-stranded DNA [2].
  • At the end of the study, body weight was larger in the WMP-, Glc-, and CPalphaL-fed rats than in the fasted ones [3].
  • During peritonitis (P), daytime dwell UF decreased significantly in G (P=0.001), but remained stable in I patients compared to non-peritonitis (NP) episodes [4].
  • Neutralization of borna disease virus depends upon terminal carbohydrate residues (alpha-D-man, beta-D-GlcNAc) of glycoproteins gp17 and gp94 [5].

High impact information on glucose

  • A. tumefaciens glycogen synthase (GS) purified to homogeneity from the above-mentioned cells was able to build its own primer by transferring Glc residues from ADP-Glc to an amino acid(s) in the same protein [6].
  • Importantly, the current study shows that TCRbeta proteins, but not TCRalpha proteins, effectively associate with calnexin under conditions of functional Glc trimming but impaired reglucosylation [7].
  • These studies define Glc trimming and calnexin association as initial molecular events in the translation of CD3 delta and TCR alpha proteins occurring coincident with or immediately after their translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum and preceding the ordered pairing of TCR chains [8].
  • We show that removal of Glc residues from both CD3 delta proteins and TCR alpha proteins occurred prior to their association with any other TCR components and that calnexin specifically interacted with unassembled TCR alpha and CD3 delta proteins containing incompletely trimmed oligosaccharides [8].
  • Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit accumulate (hydroxy)cinnamoyl glucose (Glc) esters, which may serve as the biogenetic precursors of diverse secondary metabolites, such as the flavor constituents methyl cinnamate and ethyl cinnamate [1].

Chemical compound and disease context of glucose

  • The only core oligosaccharide released from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Bradyrhizobium japonicum 61A101c by prolonged (5 h) mild hydrolysis with acid, and the major core oligosaccharide obtained from its symbiotic and LPS-defective mutant, JS314, was the trisaccharide alpha-D-Man p-(1----4)-alpha-D-Glc p-(1----4)-2,7-anhydro-alpha-Kdof [9].
  • Three methods of expressing urinary Mg and Glu concentrations were selected: Method A: mg/24 h; Method B: mg/24 h/kg body weight (BW), and Method C: ratio of Mg to creatinine (Mg/Crea) or ratio of Glu to Crea (Glu/Crea) [10].

Biological context of glucose

  • Similarly, the most efficient uptake of plasmid DNA was obtained with glycoplexes bearing alpha-D-Man residues [11].
  • However, when supplied at low concentration (2 mM) and with the adequate phosphate concentration (30 mM), energy metabolism was restored and Man repressed proteolysis similarly to Glc, when provided at the same concentration [12].
  • By using the structural similarity between the catalytic core of glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and BGT, we have modelled the position of the Glc moiety in UDP-Glc [2].
  • Carbohydrate-mediated regulation of gene expression involving a HXK-mediated pathway is known to be activated by Glc, Man, and other monosaccharides [13].
  • Conversely, removal of Glc dramatically decreased lipogenesis [14].

Anatomical context of glucose

  • Our data demonstrate that TCRalpha/beta glycoproteins undergo multiple cycles of Glc removal and addition within the endoplasmic reticulum and that numerous reglucosylated proteins assemble with calnexin, including TCRalpha/beta glycoproteins [7].
  • Here, we studied the role of glucose (Glc) trimming and calnexin association in the oligomerization of TCR alpha and CD3 delta glycoproteins in murine splenic T lymphocytes, a model cell type for efficient assembly of complete TCR complexes [8].
  • To better understand the relationship between glucose (Glc) metabolism and injury and to indirectly test the hypothesis that these changes constitute a general adaptive response to insult, we have sought to identify and characterize injury-associated factors that couple to mesangial cell HK regulation [15].
  • Considerable amounts of several saccharide residues (alpha-D-Man, beta-D-GlcNAc, alpha-D-GalNAc, beta-D-Gal, alpha-D-Gal, alpha-L-Fuc, NeuNAc) are demonstrated by lectin histochemistry in the sections of the sebaceous glands, and, particularly, the apocrine tubular glands of the common seal [16].
  • Thirty P episodes occurred during follow-up: 16 in G patients and 14 in I patients (1 per 17.6 months and 1 per 21.9 months, respectively.) After one year, absolute number and percentage of effluent peritoneal macrophages (PM phi s) were significantly higher in I patients than in G patients [17].

Associations of glucose with other chemical compounds

  • When Gln was removed from the medium, the contribution of Glc to fatty acid synthesis doubled, replacing most of the contribution of Gln and maintaining total lipogenesis [14].
  • These results indicate that Glc's distinct role in lipid synthesis during differentiation cannot be replaced by other carbon sources, consistent with the role of Glc supplying NADPH and/or glycerol for triglyceride synthesis [14].
  • Mutants lacking ADP-glucose synthetase (glgC) accumulated trehalose normally, whereas mutants lacking UDP-glucose synthetase (galU) did not make trehalose and grew poorly in medium of high osmolarity [18].
  • During the G trial blood lactate (HLa) was greater than C at all work loads (P less than 0.05) Adjusted blood HLa values (HLa - pre-exercise value = delta HLa), however, were essentially the same for the C and G trials [19].
  • Objective: Our study assessed the efficacy, safety, and biocompatibility of icodextrin (I) solution compared to glucose (G) solution as the daytime dwell in continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) [17].

Gene context of glucose

  • We therefore examined their ability to influence mesangial cell HK activity, Glc utilization, MAPK pathway activation, and individual HK isoform abundance [15].
  • Changes in HK activity were associated with both increased Glc metabolism and selective increases in HKII isoform abundance [15].
  • The binding sites of four other lectins, WGA, MPA, Con A and BPA, remained expressed during the course of development, being indicative for the carbohydrate side-chains beta-GlcNAc(1-4)Gluc, alpha-Gal(1-3)GalNAc, alpha-D-Man/alpha-D-Gluc and alpha-GalNAc [20].
  • Surprisingly, glycoplexes bearing alpha-D-Man residues were poorly efficient for gene transfer into normal and CF cells [11].
  • 8. Chemical analyses and lectin agglutination experiments showed nonreducing end-groups of beta-D-galactopyranose, beta-xylopyranose, and alpha-D-mannopyranose [21].


  1. Cinnamate metabolism in ripening fruit. Characterization of a UDP-glucose:cinnamate glucosyltransferase from strawberry. Lunkenbein, S., Bellido, M., Aharoni, A., Salentijn, E.M., Kaldenhoff, R., Coiner, H.A., Muñoz-Blanco, J., Schwab, W. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. T4 phage beta-glucosyltransferase: substrate binding and proposed catalytic mechanism. Moréra, S., Imberty, A., Aschke-Sonnenborn, U., Rüger, W., Freemont, P.S. J. Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. A preexercise alpha-lactalbumin-enriched whey protein meal preserves lipid oxidation and decreases adiposity in rats. Bouthegourd, J.C., Roseau, S.M., Makarios-Lahham, L., Leruyet, P.M., Tomé, D.G., Even, P.C. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Icodextrin use in CCPD patients during peritonitis: ultrafiltration and serum disaccharide concentrations. Posthuma, N., ter Weel, P.M., Donker, A.J., Peers, E.M., Oe, P.L., Verbrugh, H.A. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Neutralization of borna disease virus depends upon terminal carbohydrate residues (alpha-D-man, beta-D-GlcNAc) of glycoproteins gp17 and gp94. Stoyloff, R., Bode, L., Borchers, K., Ludwig, H. Intervirology (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. De novo synthesis of bacterial glycogen: Agrobacterium tumefaciens glycogen synthase is involved in glucan initiation and elongation. Ugalde, J.E., Parodi, A.J., Ugalde, R.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Reglucosylation of N-linked glycans is critical for calnexin assembly with T cell receptor (TCR) alpha proteins but not TCRbeta proteins. Van Leeuwen, J.E., Kearse, K.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Calnexin associates exclusively with individual CD3 delta and T cell antigen receptor (TCR) alpha proteins containing incompletely trimmed glycans that are not assembled into multisubunit TCR complexes. van Leeuwen, J.E., Kearse, K.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Structures of the oligosaccharides obtained from the core regions of the lipopolysaccharides of Bradyrhizobium japonicum 61A101c and its symbiotically defective lipopolysaccharide mutant, JS314. Carlson, R.W., Krishnaiah, B.S. Carbohydr. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Urinary magnesium loss in aging diabetic mellitus rats. Xiu, Y.Y., Naito, H.K., Galen, R.S. Magnesium. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Sugar-mediated uptake of glycosylated polylysines and gene transfer into normal and cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells. Fajac, I., Briand, P., Monsigny, M., Midoux, P. Hum. Gene Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Regulation of protein degradation and protease expression by mannose in maize root tips. Pi sequestration by mannose may hinder the study of its signaling properties. Brouquisse, R., Evrard, A., Rolin, D., Raymond, P., Roby, C. Plant Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Mannose inhibits Arabidopsis germination via a hexokinase-mediated step. Pego, J.V., Weisbeek, P.J., Smeekens, S.C. Plant Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Quantifying carbon sources for de novo lipogenesis in wild-type and IRS-1 knockout brown adipocytes. Yoo, H., Stephanopoulos, G., Kelleher, J.K. J. Lipid Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Proinflammatory interleukin-1 cytokines increase mesangial cell hexokinase activity and hexokinase II isoform abundance. Taneja, N., Coy, P.E., Lee, I., Bryson, J.M., Robey, R.B. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Aspects of general antimicrobial properties of skin secretions in the common seal Phoca vitulina. Meyer, W., Bollhorn, M., Stede, M. Dis. Aquat. Org. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Assessment of the effectiveness, safety, and biocompatibility of icodextrin in automated peritoneal dialysis. The Dextrin in APD in Amsterdam (DIANA) Group. Posthuma, N., ter Wee, P.M., Donker, A.J., Oe, P.L., Peers, E.M., Verbrugh, H.A. Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Accumulation of trehalose by Escherichia coli K-12 at high osmotic pressure depends on the presence of amber suppressors. Rod, M.L., Alam, K.Y., Cunningham, P.R., Clark, D.P. J. Bacteriol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Alteration in the lactate threshold with changes in substrate availability. Ivy, J.L., Costill, D.L., Van Handel, P.J., Essig, D.A., Lower, R.W. International journal of sports medicine. (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Glycoconjugate expression during early mouse oculogenesis. Buse, E., Seifert, H. Histochem. J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Structural features and antigenic properties of carbohydrate-containing components of Trypanosoma conorhini. Pessolani, M.C., Mendonça-Previato, L., Andrade, A.F., Gorin, P.A., Previato, J.O. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1987) [Pubmed]
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