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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Workload


Psychiatry related information on Workload

  • We found that exercise at equal perceived exertion was associated with the choice of a nearly equal absolute work load after sleep deprivation as after normal sleep (17.1 vs. 17.5% grade; p = n.s.). In addition, after 10 min of exercise at the self-selected intensity, subjects displayed identical ventilation, oxygen uptake, and CO2 production [6].
  • The effects of variations in work load (indexed by paid work hours) on psychological well-being, cortisol, smoking, and alcohol consumption were examined in a sample of 71 workers (44 women, 27 men) in the retail industry [7].

High impact information on Workload

  • This response is believed to be mediated by increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) and is hypothesized to reduce the work load imposed on the folding machinery during stress [8].
  • Low-intensity exercise was performed for 60 min at a work load equal to 50% of the lactate threshold, and high-intensity exercise was performed for 30 min at a work load between the lactate threshold and maximal work capacity for the individual [9].
  • Thus, alterations in skeletal muscle carnitine metabolism, characterized by an increase in acylcarnitines and a decrease in free and total carnitine, are dependent on the work load and, therefore, the metabolic state associated with the exercise, and are poorly reflected in the plasma and urine carnitine pools [9].
  • Myosin isoenzyme expression can be altered by changes in work load but is still responsive to increased levels of thyroid hormone [10].
  • These data confirmed that "work load," in addition to luminal nutrition, maintains intestinal mass [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Workload

  • Since ischemia can cause changes in phosphorylated compounds similar to those during catecholamine stimulation, this study tested the hypothesis that the exaggerated depletion of PCr and accumulation of Pi during high workloads in LVH is the result of impaired myocyte oxygenation [12].
  • The workloads were adjusted to approximately 70% of peak O2 consumption (VO2peak) measured either in hypoxia for the HT group or in normoxia for the NT group [13].
  • Epinephrine responses to hypoglycemia and to identical relative work loads have been shown to be higher in endurance-trained athletes than in untrained subjects [14].
  • The non-linear release of Bohr protons over the range of Hb-O2 saturation in the blood reduces HCO3- dehydration at the gills during greater work loads elevating arterial P(CO2) levels, leading to an increase in HCO3- buffer capacity of the blood and tissues [15].
  • 6N-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; selective A1 adenosine receptor agonist) induced bradicardia and negative inotropic effects, reduced work load (i.e., decreased HR, VPSP, +dP/dtmax, +dP/dtmax/VPSP and HR x VPSP) and inhibited endotoxin-induced tachycardia and renin release [16].

Biological context of Workload


Anatomical context of Workload

  • The total 2-deoxy[3H]glucose trapped in the myocardium was proportional to the glucose uptake which was varied by the mechanical work load and availability of other oxidizable substrates [22].
  • To examine whether catecholamines have a direct effect on myosin heavy chain expression of heart myocytes or whether they act via an altered work load, myocytes from neonatal rat hearts were cultured in thyroid hormone-free media containing various positive inotropic and chronotropic agents [23].
  • Univariate analysis showed that gender (chi-square = 5.1), exercise work load (chi-square = 3.1), extent of coronary artery disease and left ventricular ejection fraction (chi-square = 14.8) and thallium variables (chi-square = 22.7) were prognostically important [24].
  • This exchange was monitored at baseline and at high workloads by comparing (13)C enrichment between the products of alpha-KG oxidation (succinate) and alpha-KG efflux from mitochondria (glutamate) [25].
  • At similar workloads, oxygen consumption, blood flow, and glucose uptake were lower in the obese than the nonobese subjects when expressed per kilogram of muscle, but similar when expressed per quadriceps femoris muscle mass [26].

Associations of Workload with chemical compounds

  • Both peak work load (1,100 +/- 60 versus 1,400 +/- 40 kpm/min) and peak O2 uptake (1.85 +/- 0.10 versus 2.38 +/- 0.07 l/min) were lower in the older men (p < 0.05) [27].
  • Lactate levels during moderate exercise were significantly lower after propranolol than after either atenolol or placebo (p = 0.03), but were similar at heavy work loads [28].
  • The increases in antecubital venous norepinephrine concentrations were greater in the older men at each work load (p < 0.05), although the plasma epinephrine responses were similar in the two groups [27].
  • The average submaximal work load at which significant ST-segment depression (0.1 mV) first appeared was increased from 355 +/- 142 to 525 +/- 143 seconds (p less than 0.01) after diltiazem [17].
  • Furthermore, marked increases in basal work load and wall stress induced by angiotensin II infusion (in four additional studies) did not reproduce this behavior [29].

Gene context of Workload

  • To determine the role of TR beta 1 in detail, we compared contractility in isolated perfused hearts from wild-type (WT) and TR beta knockout mice under normal and increased work load [30].
  • Basal and exercise-stimulated plasma GH and PRL concentrations were similar in the three groups tested at similar relative workloads, suggesting that physical training induces adaptive changes whereby higher absolute workloads induce similar hormonal and metabolic changes [31].
  • We conclude that physical training causes adaptive changes in highly trained runners so that identical GH and PRL responses to exercise are recorded at higher absolute workloads [31].
  • The results suggested a closer relationship between CS activity (oxidative potential) and work load than between Mb content and work load [32].
  • One hour of acute exercise (Ex) (70% VO2 max relative work load) decreased hepatic homogenate catalase (-12%, P less than 0.02) and increased hepatic m-Mn SOD (+28%, P less than 0.03) [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Workload


  1. Chronic stable angina monotherapy. Nifedipine versus propranolol. Higginbotham, M.B., Morris, K.G., Coleman, R.E., Cobb, F.R. Am. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Skeletal muscle lactate accumulation and creatine phosphate depletion during heavy exercise in congestive heart failure. Cause of limited exercise capacity? Näveri, H.K., Leinonen, H., Kiilavuori, K., Härkönen, M. Eur. Heart J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. The effects of insulin on glucose uptake and lactate release in perfused working rat heart preparations. Sugden, P.H., Smith, D.M. Biochem. J. (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Attenuation of aortic banding-induced cardiac hypertrophy by propranolol is independent of beta-adrenoceptor blockade. Marano, G., Palazzesi, S., Fadda, A., Vergari, A., Ferrari, A.U. J. Hypertens. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Metabolic rate and blood hormone and metabolite levels of individuals susceptible to malignant hyperpyrexia at rest and in response to food and mild exercise. Campbell, I.T., Ellis, F.R., Evans, R.T. Anesthesiology (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Self-selected exercise intensity is unchanged by sleep loss. Martin, B., Haney, R. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. A longitudinal study of work load and variations in psychological well-being, cortisol, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Steptoe, A., Wardle, J., Lipsey, Z., Mills, R., Oliver, G., Jarvis, M., Kirschbaum, C. Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Perk is essential for translational regulation and cell survival during the unfolded protein response. Harding, H.P., Zhang, Y., Bertolotti, A., Zeng, H., Ron, D. Mol. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Carnitine and acylcarnitine metabolism during exercise in humans. Dependence on skeletal muscle metabolic state. Hiatt, W.R., Regensteiner, J.G., Wolfel, E.E., Ruff, L., Brass, E.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of thyroid hormone on cardiac size and myosin content of the heterotopically transplanted rat heart. Klein, I., Hong, C. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of luminal glucose versus nonnutritive infusates on jejunal mass and absorption in the rat. Richter, G.C., Levine, G.M., Shiau, Y.F. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Myocardial oxygenation at high workstates in hearts with left ventricular hypertrophy. Bache, R.J., Zhang, J., Murakami, Y., Zhang, Y., Cho, Y.K., Merkle, H., Gong, G., From, A.H., Ugurbil, K. Cardiovasc. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Muscle tissue adaptations of high-altitude natives to training in chronic hypoxia or acute normoxia. Desplanches, D., Hoppeler, H., Tüscher, L., Mayet, M.H., Spielvogel, H., Ferretti, G., Kayser, B., Leuenberger, M., Grünenfelder, A., Favier, R. J. Appl. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of physical training on the capacity to secrete epinephrine. Kjaer, M., Galbo, H. J. Appl. Physiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. The interaction between O2 and CO2 exchange in rainbow trout during graded sustained exercise. Brauner, C.J., Thorarensen, H., Gallaugher, P., Farrell, A.P., Randall, D.J. Respiration physiology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Inhibition of adenosine deaminase attenuates endotoxin-induced release of cytokines in vivo in rats. Tofovic, S.P., Zacharia, L., Carcillo, J.A., Jackson, E.K. Shock (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Increased exercise tolerance and reduced electrocardiographic ischemia with diltiazem in patients with stable angina pectoris. Wagniart, P., Ferguson, R.J., Chaitman, B.R., Achard, F., Benacerraf, A., Delanguenhagen, B., Morin, B., Pasternac, A., Bourassa, M.G. Circulation (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Sustained improvement of cardiac function in patients with congestive heart failure after short-term infusion of dobutamine. Liang, C.S., Sherman, L.G., Doherty, J.U., Wellington, K., Lee, V.W., Hood, W.B. Circulation (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Exercise training in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. Hemodynamic and metabolic effects. Sullivan, M.J., Higginbotham, M.B., Cobb, F.R. Circulation (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of long-term treatment with amiodarone on exercise hemodynamics and left ventricular relaxation in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Paulus, W.J., Nellens, P., Heyndrickx, G.R., Andries, E. Circulation (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Nuclear magnetic resonance evaluation of metabolic and respiratory support of work load in intact rabbit hearts. Lewandowski, E.D. Circ. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of mechanical work load on the transmural distribution of glucose uptake in the isolated perfused rat heart, studied by regional deoxyglucose trapping. Takala, T.E., Hassinen, I.E. Circ. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of positive inotropic agents on myosin isozyme population and mechanical activity of cultured rat heart myocytes. Rupp, H., Berger, H.J., Pfeifer, A., Werdan, K. Circ. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Independent and incremental prognostic value of exercise single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) thallium imaging in coronary artery disease. Iskandrian, A.S., Chae, S.C., Heo, J., Stanberry, C.D., Wasserleben, V., Cave, V. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Limited transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria at high cardiac workload. O'Donnell, J.M., Kudej, R.K., LaNoue, K.F., Vatner, S.F., Lewandowski, E.D. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Insulin- and exercise-stimulated skeletal muscle blood flow and glucose uptake in obese men. Hällsten, K., Yki-Järvinen, H., Peltoniemi, P., Oikonen, V., Takala, T., Kemppainen, J., Laine, H., Bergman, J., Bolli, G.B., Knuuti, J., Nuutila, P. Obes. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Augmented forearm vasoconstriction during dynamic exercise in healthy older men. Taylor, J.A., Hand, G.A., Johnson, D.G., Seals, D.R. Circulation (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Differentiation of hemodynamic, humoral and metabolic responses to beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic stimulation in man using atenolol and propranolol. McLeod, A.A., Brown, J.E., Kuhn, C., Kitchell, B.B., Sedor, F.A., Williams, R.S., Shand, D.G. Circulation (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Adverse influence of systemic vascular stiffening on cardiac dysfunction and adaptation to acute coronary occlusion. Kass, D.A., Saeki, A., Tunin, R.S., Recchia, F.A. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Cardiac expression and function of thyroid hormone receptor beta and its PV mutant. Swanson, E.A., Gloss, B., Belke, D.D., Kaneshige, M., Cheng, S.Y., Dillmann, W.H. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Plasma growth hormone and prolactin responses to graded levels of acute exercise and to a lactate infusion. Luger, A., Watschinger, B., Deuster, P., Svoboda, T., Clodi, M., Chrousos, G.P. Neuroendocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Myoglobin content and citrate synthase activity in different parts of the normal human heart. Lin, L., Sylvén, C., Sotonyi, P., Somogyi, E., Kaijser, L., Jansson, E. J. Appl. Physiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Dehydroepiandrosterone and a beta-agonist, energy transducers, alter antioxidant enzyme systems: influence of chronic training and acute exercise in rats. Schauer, J.E., Schelin, A., Hanson, P., Stratman, F.W. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. Prognostic value of high dose dipyridamole echocardiography in patients with chronic coronary artery disease and preserved left ventricular function. Coletta, C., Galati, A., Greco, G., Burattini, M., Ricci, R., Carunchio, A., Fera, M.S., Bordi, L., Ceci, V. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Quantification of absolute myocardial perfusion at rest and during exercise with positron emission tomography after human cardiac transplantation. Krivokapich, J., Stevenson, L.W., Kobashigawa, J., Huang, S.C., Schelbert, H.R. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  36. Phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II in cardiac hypertrophy: cell enlargement signals converge on cyclin T/Cdk9. Kulkarni, P.A., Sano, M., Schneider, M.D. Recent Prog. Horm. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Effects of exercise and isoproterenol on hemodynamics and myocardial VO2 in lambs with aortopulmonary shunts. Gratama, J.W., Meuzelaar, J.J., Dalinghaus, M., Koers, J.H., Gerding, A.M., Zijlstra, W.G., Kuipers, J.R. J. Appl. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  38. Aerobic lactate synthesis by cardiac muscle. Strong, P., Mullings, R., Illingworth, J.A. Eur. J. Biochem. (1979) [Pubmed]
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