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Chemical Compound Review

Prodilidina     (1,2-dimethyl-3-phenyl- pyrrolidin-3-yl)...

Synonyms: Prodilidine, Prodilidinum, SureCN26140, CTK3I9119, LS-138521, ...
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  • A 1981 outbreak of dermatitis in Austin, Tex, was traced to occupational exposure to wheat infested with the straw itch mite, Pyemotes ventricosus; the wheat was being sold for decorative purposes by an imported-goods store located on the second floor of a large, modern, shopping mall complex [1].
  • The Escherichia coli priming system used for initiation of DNA chains on phage phi X174 single-stranded DNA is a multiprotein unit called the primosome [Arai, K. & Kornberg. A. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 69-73] [2].
  • Striking similarities of gene organization have been noted between the genes coding for Ad5 VA RNAs and the EBV EBERs [Rosa, M. D., Gottlieb, E., Lerner, M. R. & Steitz, J. A. (1981) Mol. Cell. Biol. 1, 785-796] [3].
  • The small adenovirus-encoded VA RNAs occur as ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles in association with a cellular protein antigen, La, recognized by the anti-La class of lupus sera [Lerner, M. R., Boyle, J. A., Hardin, J. A. & Steitz, J. A. (1981) Science 211, 400-402] [4].
  • Biochemical and morphological studies were performed on Novikoff hepatoma ascites cell nucleolar matrix fractions prepared by deoxyribonuclease I digestion and high-molarity salt extractions essentially according to a published method [Berezney, R., & Buchholz, L. A. (1981) Exp. Cell Res. 20, 4995-5002] [5].

High impact information on PRODILIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE

  • It is essentially the same as that described for the replication of oriC plasmid DNA [Fuller, R.S., Kaguni, J.M. & Kornberg, A. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 7370-7374] [6].
  • The enzyme responsible for this acetylation uses acetyl-CoA as acetyl donor and can be measured in crude extracts (Boos, W., Ferenci, T., and Shuman, H. A. (1981) J. Bacteriol. 146, 725-732) [7].
  • Consistent with the previously proposed role of the primosome (Arai, K. and Kornberg, A. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 78, 69-73), an n' site on the lagging strand, but not on the leading strand, is required for efficient replication of the plasmid in vitro [8].
  • This labeling pattern is similar to that observed with sympathetic ganglia membranes (Massague, J., Guillette, B. J., Czech, M. P., Morgan, C. J., and Bradshaw, R. A. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 9419-9424) and indicates that these two forms do not arise from the cross-linking procedure [9].
  • We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the dnaB gene and the primary structure of the dnaB protein of Escherichia coli (Arai, K., Yasuda, S., and Kornberg, A. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 5247-5252) [10].


  • Examination of the nucleotide sequence of the gene for ribosomal protein S20 (rpsT) of Escherichia coli suggested the presence of two promoters ("sites 1 and 2") separated by 90 base pairs (Mackie, G. A. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 8177-8182) [11].
  • Processive primosome movement on the lagging strand with the replication fork was proposed as a model for the discontinuous portion of Escherichia coli chromosome replication (Arai, K. and Kornberg, A. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 78, 69-73; Arai, K., Low, R. L., and Kornberg, A. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 78, 707-711) [12].
  • This enzyme cannot be distinguished from that previously described [Davis, J. C., Lin, S. S., & Averill, B. A. (1981) Biochemistry 20, 4062] by electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, Western blot analysis, or N-terminal amino acid sequence and exhibits identical catalytic properties and EPR spectra in the reduced (pink) form [13].
  • A 1981 Massachusetts Department of Public Health study confirmed a childhood leukemia cluster in Woburn, Massachusetts. Our follow-up investigation attempts to identify factors potentially responsible for the cluster [14].
  • Previous studies have revealed that the replacement of the C-2 ester group in phosphatidylcholine by the carbamyloxy function renders the resulting lipids, without affecting the properties of the liposomes, resistant to hydrolysis by phospholipase A2 (Gupta, C.M. Bali, A. (1981) Biochim. Biophys, Acta 663, 506-515) [15].


  • We have previously described an enzyme that activates ubiquitin, the heat-stable polypeptide of the ATP-dependent proteolytic system from reticulocytes (Ciechanover, A., Heller, H., Katz-Etzion, R., and Hershko, A. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 78, 761-765) [16].
  • The r infinity values are significantly higher in the total membranes than in the protein-depleted liposomes, following the trend of the steady state anisotropy values previously reported (Gallay, J., Vincent, M., de Paillerets, C., Rogard, M., and Alfsen, A. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 1235-1241) [17].
  • It has recently been demonstrated that an established cell line from pig kidney, LLC-PK1, is a useful model for the study of vasopressin-sensitive adenylate cyclase (Roy, C., and Ausiello, D. A. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 3415-3422; Roy, C., Hall, D., Karish, M., and Ausiello, D. A. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 3423-3427) [18].
  • In intact LLC-PK1 cells, occupancy of vasopressin receptors (Roy, C., and Ausiello, D. A. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 3415-3522) correlated with cell cAMP production [19].
  • Viruses such as VSV fuse with cell membranes at low pH [White, J., Matlin, K., & Helenius, A. (1981) J. Cell Biol. 89, 674-679] [20].

Associations of PRODILIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE with other chemical compounds

  • Ammonium sulfate also enhances transcription from the adeno IVa2 promoter, which is not expressed in extracts that lack (NH4)2SO4 (Fire, A., Baker, C. C., Manley, J. L., Ziff, E. B., and Sharp, P. A. (1981) J. Virol. 40, 703-719; Lee, D. C., and Roeder, R. G. (1981) Mol. Cell. Biol. 1, 635-651) [21].


  • The missing segments have been provided from results from sequencing the DNA of the yeast enolase genes (Holland, M. J., Holland, J. P., Thill, G. P., and Jackson, K. A. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 1385-1395) [22].
  • It has been postulated that the stimulation of GTPase plays a role in opiate inhibition of adenylate cyclase (Koski, G., and Klee, W. A. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 4185-4189) [23].
  • Tm corresponded to the thioredoxin fraction we had isolated and studied previously (Gleason, F. K., and Holmgren, A. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 8301-8309) [24].
  • The method for two-dimensional hybridization mapping of nucleosomes (Levinger, L., Barsoum, J., and Varshavsky, A. (1981) J. Mol. Biol. 146, 287-304) was used to analyze chromatin structure of the gene for dihydrofolate reductase (DHF reductase; 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate:NADP+ oxidoreductase (EC in L5178Y-R mouse cells [25].
  • Our previous in vivo studies demonstrated that large premature fragments of beta-galactosidase are degraded in Escherichia coli by a common pathway, and the initial event appears to be a site-specific cleavage (McKnight, J. L., and Fried, V. A. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 9652-9661) [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PRODILIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE

  • The thermodynamic data are discussed in connection with the detailed structural information available for this system from x-ray crystallography (Newcomer, M. E., Gilliland, G. L. and Quiocho, F. A. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 13213-13217, and references cited therein) [27].
  • Studies on mucin polymer assembly revealed that mucin preparations prepared by equilibrium density gradient centrifugation and Sepharose 2B chromatography (Mantle, M., Mantle, D., and Allen, A. (1981) Biochem. J. 195, 277-285) are not completely purified and contain DNA and extraneous proteins [28].


  1. Occupational dermatitis associated with straw itch mites (Pyemotes ventricosus). Betz, T.G., Davis, B.L., Fournier, P.V., Rawlings, J.A., Elliot, L.B., Baggett, D.A. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Movement and site selection for priming by the primosome in phage phi X174 DNA replication. Arai, K., Low, R.L., Kornberg, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Two small RNAs encoded by Epstein-Barr virus can functionally substitute for the virus-associated RNAs in the lytic growth of adenovirus 5. Bhat, R.A., Thimmappaya, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Interaction between VA RNA and the lupus antigen La: formation of a ribonucleoprotein particle in vitro. Francoeur, A.M., Mathews, M.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Preribosomal ribonucleoprotein particles are a major component of a nucleolar matrix fraction. Olson, M.O., Wallace, M.O., Herrera, A.H., Marshall-Carlson, L., Hunt, R.C. Biochemistry (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Replication of mini-P1 plasmid DNA in vitro requires two initiation proteins, encoded by the repA gene of phage P1 and the dnaA gene of Escherichia coli. Wickner, S.H., Chattoraj, D.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Maltose transacetylase of Escherichia coli. Mapping and cloning of its structural, gene, mac, and characterization of the enzyme as a dimer of identical polypeptides with a molecular weight of 20,000. Brand, B., Boos, W. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Initiation of lagging-strand synthesis for pBR322 plasmid DNA replication in vitro is dependent on primosomal protein i encoded by dnaT. Masai, H., Arai, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Nerve growth factor receptor from rabbit sympathetic ganglia membranes. Relationship between subforms. Kouchalakos, R.N., Bradshaw, R.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Nucleotide sequence of dnaB and the primary structure of the dnaB protein from Escherichia coli. Nakayama, N., Arai, N., Bond, M.W., Kaziro, Y., Arai, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Tandem promoters in the gene for ribosomal protein S20. Mackie, G.A., Parsons, G.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Site selection and structure of DNA-linked RNA primers synthesized by the primosome in phage phi X174 DNA replication in vitro. Ogawa, T., Arai, K., Okazaki, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Spectroscopic and kinetics studies of a high-salt-stabilized form of the purple acid phosphatase from bovine spleen. Vincent, J.B., Crowder, M.W., Averill, B.A. Biochemistry (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. A case-control study of childhood leukemia in Woburn, Massachusetts: the relationship between leukemia incidence and exposure to public drinking water. Costas, K., Knorr, R.S., Condon, S.K. Sci. Total Environ. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Modification of phospholipid structure results in greater stability if liposomes in serum. Gupta, C.M., Bali, A., Dhawan, S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. "Covalent affinity" purification of ubiquitin-activating enzyme. Ciechanover, A., Elias, S., Heller, H., Hershko, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Dynamic structure of bovine adrenal cortex microsomal membranes studied by time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy of all-trans-1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. Gallay, J., Vincent, M., Alfsen, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Regulation of vasopressin-sensitive adenylate cyclase by calmodulin. Ausiello, D.A., Hall, D. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  19. Relationship of (8-lysine) vasopressin receptor transition to receptor functional properties in a pig kidney cell line (LLC-PK1). Roy, C., Hall, D., Karish, M., Ausiello, D.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Physical properties of a soluble form of the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus at neutral and acidic pH. Crimmins, D.L., Mehard, W.B., Schlesinger, S. Biochemistry (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Preferential stimulation of transcription from simian virus 40 late and adeno IVa2 promoters in a HeLa cell extract. Natarajan, V., Madden, M.J., Salzman, N.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. The amino acid sequence of yeast enolase. Chin, C.C., Brewer, J.M., Wold, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Pertussis toxin inhibits enkephalin stimulation of GTPase of NG108-15 cells. Burns, D.L., Hewlett, E.L., Moss, J., Vaughan, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Isolation and characterization of thioredoxin f from the filamentous cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. 7119. Whittaker, M.M., Gleason, F.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  25. On the chromatin structure of the amplified, transcriptionally active gene for dihydrofolate reductase in mouse cells. Barsoum, J., Levinger, L., Varshavsky, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  26. A novel proteolytic activity apparently initiating degradation of beta-galactosidase nonsense fragments in in vitro extracts of Escherichia coli. McKnight, J.L., Fried, V.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Thermodynamics of the binding of L-arabinose and of D-galactose to the L-arabinose-binding protein of Escherichia coli. Fukada, H., Sturtevant, J.M., Quiocho, F.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Synthesis and macromolecular organization of gastrointestinal mucin. Slomiany, A., Slomiany, B.L. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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