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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Emkapyl     2-(2-hydroxypropoxy)propan-1- ol

Synonyms: Lineartop E, PPG-9, Polymer 2, PPG-12, PPG-15, ...
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Disease relevance of Bloat Guard

  • With the aim of developing a gel formulation that could be effective in preventing sexually transmitted infections, the authors have evaluated the capacity of a polyoxypropylene/polyoxyethylene polymer to reduce or eliminate the toxicity of nonoxynol-9 [1].
  • Eight block copolymers of hydrophilic polyoxyethylene and hydrophobic polyoxypropylene were examined for their effects on the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in H9 cells [2].

High impact information on Bloat Guard


Biological context of Bloat Guard

  • We have now used a three dimensional analytical fractionation procedure, based on differential centrifugation, equilibrium density gradient centrifugation, and partitioning in an aqueous polymer 2-phase system, to survey the subcellular distribution of Na/H antiport activity in rat kidney cortex [8].
  • Polycationic block copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) for cell transfection [9].
  • Substantial reductions (up to 97%) in bacterial adhesion levels were achieved with all copolymers tested, irrespective of the PPO or PEO block lengths [10].
  • The chain polymer 2 has a centrosymmetric hexanuclear central core, Cu6S6I4 (mu-I)2--, formed by dimerization of six-membered trinuclear motifs, Cu3(mu2-SC3H6N2)3I3 via (mu3-S) bonding modes of the thione ligand, and has four terminal and two bridging iodine atoms in trans-orientations [11].
  • The poly(propylene oxide) segments possess temperature-dependent aqueous solubility and the solutions of the Pluronic-poly(acrylic acid) copolymers (MW > 3,000,000) undergo a sol-gel transition when kept at body temperature [12].

Anatomical context of Bloat Guard


Associations of Bloat Guard with other chemical compounds

  • The fluids consist of a suspension of approximately 7 nm magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles coated with a bifunctional polymer layer comprised of an outer hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) region for colloidal stability and an inner hydrophobic poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) region for solubilization of organic compounds [17].
  • In an attempt to understand the role of interfacial friction on solute rotation, fluorescence anisotropy decays of a cationic solute, rhodamine 110, have been measured in polymorphic environments of a triblock copolymer, (PEO)20-(PPO)70-(PEO)20 (P123) (PEO = poly(ethylene oxide), PPO = poly(propylene oxide)) [18].
  • Moreover, it is directly evidenced from TEM that the reduced Pt(0) nanoparticles are embedded in the polyethylenimine (PEI) block at the exterior of micelles, whereas the polyoxypropylene (PPO) block is surrounded by the PEI block [19].
  • Cross-linked urethane/urea membranes with two soft segments were prepared by extending a poly(propylene oxide) based tri-isocyanate-terminated prepolymer (PUR) with polybutadiene diol (PBDO) [20].
  • A number of models representing toothpaste and mouthwash usage were adopted to detect the anti-adherent efficacy of a polyvinylmethylether maleic acid copolymer (PVM/MA), polyoxypropylene/polyoxyethylene block copolymer (PO/EO), two casein-derived peptides and selected silicones [21].

Gene context of Bloat Guard

  • Therefore, tissue culture grade polystyrene (TCPS) and bacteriological grade polystyrene (BGPS) substrata were treated with different media, with or without Pluronic F68 [a poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) triblock copolymer surfactant], and with or without type I collagen as a typical extracellular matrix protein [22].
  • This copolymer was prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization in a convenient one-pot synthesis and comprised a thermoresponsive core-forming poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) block, a cross-linkable central poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (DMA) block, and a hydroxy-functional outer block based on poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (GMA) [23].
  • Pluronic copolymers are tri-block polymers of poly(ethylene oxide) [(EO)x] and poly(propylene oxide) [(PO)y] with the general formula (EO)x(PO)y(EO)x. Large micelles form in aqueous solutions in which central, hydrophobic cores of (PO)y segments are surrounded by "brushes" of hydrated (EO)x tails [24].
  • Three well-defined diblock copolymers of poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) [poly(SBMA)] and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) were synthesized by the sequential addition of SBMA monomer to fixed amounts of PPO using an atom transfer radical polymerization method and varying poly(SBMA) lengths [25].
  • There were a total of four treatment groups: (1) empty microspheres, blank polymer; (2) empty microspheres, ADR polymer; (3) IL-2 MS, blank polymer; and (4) IL-2 MS, ADR polymer [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Bloat Guard

  • Crystallization of tBuPO(3)H(2) from polar solvents such as CH(3)CN or THF gives the H-bonded one-dimensional polymer 2, whereas crystallization from the less polar solvent CDCl(3) favors the formation of the H-bonded cluster (tBuPO(3)H(2))(6).CDCl(3) (1) [27].
  • New cationic pentablock copolymers of poly(diethylaminoethylmethacrylate) (PDEAEM), poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO)--PDEAEM-b-PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO-b-PDEAEM--synthesized in our laboratory were investigated for their potential as non-viral vectors for gene therapy [28].
  • There were a total of four treatment groups: (1) blank polymer; (2) 3% DOX polymer; (3) 5% DOX polymer, and (4) control group with no polymer [29].


  1. Protective effect of a thermoreversible gel against the toxicity of nonoxynol-9. Gagné, N., Cormier, H., Omar, R.F., Désormeaux, A., Gourde, P., Tremblay, M.J., Juhász, J., Beauchamp, D., Rioux, J.E., Bergeron, M.G. Sexually transmitted diseases. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by nonionic block polymer surfactants. Hirschman, S.Z., Zucker, M.L., Garfinkel, E. J. Med. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. In vitro release of histamine from murine mast cells by block co-polymers composed of polyoxyethylene and polyoxypropylene. Atkinson, T.P., Smith, T.F., Hunter, R.L. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Histamine release from human basophils by synthetic block co-polymers composed of polyoxyethylene and polyoxypropylene and synergy with immunologic and non-immunologic stimuli. Atkinson, T.P., Smith, T.F., Hunter, R.L. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Transcriptional activation of gene expression by pluronic block copolymers in stably and transiently transfected cells. Sriadibhatla, S., Yang, Z., Gebhart, C., Alakhov, V.Y., Kabanov, A. Mol. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Ionophoric activity of pluronic block copolymers. Krylova, O.O., Pohl, P. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Viscosity-adjustable block copolymer for DNA separation by capillary electrophoresis. Wu, C., Liu, T., Chu, B. Electrophoresis (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Subcellular distribution of Na+/H+ antiport activity in rat renal cortex. Hensley, C.B., Bradley, M.E., Mircheff, A.K. Kidney Int. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Polycationic block copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) for cell transfection. Bromberg, L., Deshmukh, S., Temchenko, M., Iourtchenko, L., Alakhov, V., Alvarez-Lorenzo, C., Barreiro-Iglesias, R., Concheiro, A., Hatton, T.A. Bioconjug. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Control of staphylococcal adhesion to polystyrene surfaces by polymer surface modification with surfactants. Bridgett, M.J., Davies, M.C., Denyer, S.P. Biomaterials (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Versatility of heterocyclic thioamides in the construction of a trinuclear cluster [Cu3I3(dppe)3 (SC5H4NH)] and Cu(I) linear polymers {Cu6(SC5H4NH)6I6}n x 2nCH3CN and {Cu(I)6 (SC3H6N2)6X6}n (X = Br, I). Lobana, T.S., Sharma, R., Sharma, R., Mehra, S., Castineiras, A., Turner, P. Inorganic chemistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Enhanced nasal retention of hydrophobically modified polyelectrolytes. Bromberg, L.E. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Thrombogenic properties of untreated and poly(ethylene oxide)-modified polymeric matrices useful for preparing intraarterial ion-selective electrodes. Espadas-Torre, C., Meyerhoff, M.E. Anal. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. The polyoxyethylene/polyoxypropylene block co-polymer poloxamer-407 selectively redirects intravenously injected microspheres to sinusoidal endothelial cells of rabbit bone marrow. Porter, C.J., Moghimi, S.M., Illum, L., Davis, S.S. FEBS Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Three-dimensional bioassembly tool for generating viable tissue-engineered constructs. Smith, C.M., Stone, A.L., Parkhill, R.L., Stewart, R.L., Simpkins, M.W., Kachurin, A.M., Warren, W.L., Williams, S.K. Tissue engineering. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Ion transport mediated by copolymers composed of polyoxyethylene and polyoxypropylene. Atkinson, T.P., Bullock, J.O., Smith, T.F., Mullins, R.E., Hunter, R.L. Am. J. Physiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Structure of polymer-stabilized magnetic fluids: small-angle neutron scattering and mean-field lattice modeling. Moeser, G.D., Green, W.H., Laibinis, P.E., Linse, P., Hatton, T.A. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Rotational diffusion of an ionic solute in polymorphic environments of a block copolymer: influence of interfacial friction on solute rotation. Mali, K.S., Dutt, G.B., Mukherjee, T. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Preparation of platinum nanoparticles in salt-induced micelles of dumbbell-shaped ABA copolymer. Liang, W.J., Lien, C.H., Kuo, P.L. Journal of colloid and interface science. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Surface and hemocompatibility studies of bi-soft segment polyurethane membranes. Queiroz, D.P., Pinto, I.M., Besteiro, M.C., Silva, A.F., Gil, M.H., Guiomar, A.J., De Pinho, M.N. The International journal of artificial organs. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Selection of oral microbial adhesion antagonists using biotinylated Streptococcus sanguis and a human mixed oral microflora. Guan, Y.H., de Graaf, T., Lath, D.L., Humphreys, S.M., Marlow, I., Brook, A.H. Arch. Oral Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Coupled influence of substratum hydrophilicity and surfactant on epithelial cell adhesion. Dewez, J.L., Schneider, Y.J., Rouxhet, P.G. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Synthesis and characterization of shell cross-linked micelles with hydroxy-functional coronas: a pragmatic alternative to dendrimers? Pilon, L.N., Armes, S.P., Findlay, P., Rannard, S.P. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Pluronic copolymer liquid crystals: unique, replaceable media for capillary gel electrophoresis. Rill, R.L., Liu, Y., Van Winkle, D.H., Locke, B.R. Journal of chromatography. A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Highly protein-resistant coatings from well-defined diblock copolymers containing sulfobetaines. Chang, Y., Chen, S., Zhang, Z., Jiang, S. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Local delivery of interleukin-2 and adriamycin is synergistic in the treatment of experimental malignant glioma. Hsu, W., Lesniak, M.S., Tyler, B., Brem, H. J. Neurooncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. tert-Butylphosphonic acid: from the bulk to the gas phase. Mehring, M., Schürmann, M., Ludwig, R. Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Novel cationic pentablock copolymers as non-viral vectors for gene therapy. Agarwal, A., Unfer, R., Mallapragada, S.K. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Local delivery of doxorubicin for the treatment of malignant brain tumors in rats. Lesniak, M.S., Upadhyay, U., Goodwin, R., Tyler, B., Brem, H. Anticancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
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