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Chemical Compound Review

Impulsin     N-(2- hydroxyethyl)hexadecanamide

Synonyms: Palmidrol, Palmidrolum, Palmitoyl-EA, Lopac-P-0359, Tocris-0879, ...
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Disease relevance of Impulsin


High impact information on Impulsin


Chemical compound and disease context of Impulsin


Biological context of Impulsin


Anatomical context of Impulsin


Associations of Impulsin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Impulsin

  • FAAH (K(m)=5.0+/-0.5 microM, V(max)=160+/-15 pmol min(-1) mg protein(-1)) was competitively inhibited by palmitoylethanolamide [21].
  • The endocannabinoid circuit involves two cloned receptors: CB1 in the CNS and CB2 in the periphery; endogenously produced ligands including anandamide, 2-arachidonylglycerol and palmitoylethanolamide; and enzymes that degrade endocannabinoid ligands to terminate signaling [23].
  • The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide, but not the CB2 ligand palmitoylethanolamide, prevents the viscero-visceral hyper-reflexia associated with inflammation of the rat urinary bladder [24].
  • In human embryonic kidney cells over-expressing the human vanilloid receptor type 1 (VR1), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, 0.5-10 microM) enhanced the effect of arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA, 50 nM) on the VR1-mediated increase of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration [25].
  • 7. It is concluded that although palmitoylethanolamide has entourage-like effects at VR1 receptors expressed on hVR1-HEK293 cells, other N-acyl ethanolamines have even more dramatic potentiating effects [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Impulsin


  1. A novel neuroimmune mechanism in cannabinoid-mediated attenuation of nerve growth factor-induced hyperalgesia. Farquhar-Smith, W.P., Rice, A.S. Anesthesiology (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Idiopathic infertility: effect of palmitoylethanolamide (a homologue of anandamide) on hyperactivated sperm cell motility and Ca2+ influx. Ambrosini, A., Zolese, G., Ambrosi, S., Bertoli, E., Mantero, F., Boscaro, M., Balercia, G. J. Androl. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. N-(2-hydroxyethyl)hexadecanamide is orally active in reducing edema formation and inflammatory hyperalgesia by down-modulating mast cell activation. Mazzari, S., Canella, R., Petrelli, L., Marcolongo, G., Leon, A. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Changes in endocannabinoid and palmitoylethanolamide levels in eye tissues of patients with diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Matias, I., Wang, J.W., Moriello, A.S., Nieves, A., Woodward, D.F., Di Marzo, V. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of impulsin treatment of interferon production and antiviral resistance of mice. Lackovic, V., Borecký, L., Kresáková, J. Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. (Warsz.) (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. Fatty acid amide hydrolase controls mouse intestinal motility in vivo. Capasso, R., Matias, I., Lutz, B., Borrelli, F., Capasso, F., Marsicano, G., Mascolo, N., Petrosino, S., Monory, K., Valenti, M., Di Marzo, V., Izzo, A.A. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. The ALIAmide palmitoylethanolamide and cannabinoids, but not anandamide, are protective in a delayed postglutamate paradigm of excitotoxic death in cerebellar granule neurons. Skaper, S.D., Buriani, A., Dal Toso, R., Petrelli, L., Romanello, S., Facci, L., Leon, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Anandamide induces apoptosis in human cells via vanilloid receptors. Evidence for a protective role of cannabinoid receptors. Maccarrone, M., Lorenzon, T., Bari, M., Melino, G., Finazzi-Agro, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha mediates the anti-inflammatory actions of palmitoylethanolamide. Lo Verme, J., Fu, J., Astarita, G., La Rana, G., Russo, R., Calignano, A., Piomelli, D. Mol. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Attempt to influence silicotic fibrosis by means of N-(2-hydroxyethyl) palmitamide (Impulsin). Hurych, J., Holusa, R., Effenbergerová, E., Mirejovská, E. Czechoslovak medicine. (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Suppression of nerve growth factor Trk receptors and prolactin receptors by endocannabinoids leads to inhibition of human breast and prostate cancer cell proliferation. Melck, D., De Petrocellis, L., Orlando, P., Bisogno, T., Laezza, C., Bifulco, M., Di Marzo, V. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of homologues and analogues of palmitoylethanolamide upon the inactivation of the endocannabinoid anandamide. Jonsson, K.O., Vandevoorde, S., Lambert, D.M., Tiger, G., Fowler, C.J. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Inhibition of rat C6 glioma cell proliferation by endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids. Relative involvement of cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors. Jacobsson, S.O., Wallin, T., Fowler, C.J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Inhibitory effect of palmitoylethanolamide on gastrointestinal motility in mice. Capasso, R., Izzo, A.A., Fezza, F., Pinto, A., Capasso, F., Mascolo, N., Di Marzo, V. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization in guinea-pig carotid, rat mesenteric and porcine coronary arteries. Chataigneau, T., Félétou, M., Thollon, C., Villeneuve, N., Vilaine, J.P., Duhault, J., Vanhoutte, P.M. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Biosynthesis of anandamide and related acylethanolamides in mouse J774 macrophages and N18 neuroblastoma cells. Di Marzo, V., De Petrocellis, L., Sepe, N., Buono, A. Biochem. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Pharmacological properties of rat brain fatty acid amidohydrolase in different subcellular fractions using palmitoylethanolamide as substrate. Tiger, G., Stenström, A., Fowler, C.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Mechanisms of anandamide-induced vasorelaxation in rat isolated coronary arteries. White, R., Ho, W.S., Bottrill, F.E., Ford, W.R., Hiley, C.R. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. The anti-hyperalgesic actions of the cannabinoid anandamide and the putative CB2 receptor agonist palmitoylethanolamide in visceral and somatic inflammatory pain. Jaggar, S.I., Hasnie, F.S., Sellaturay, S., Rice, A.S. Pain (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Modulation of P-glycoprotein activity by cannabinoid molecules in HK-2 renal cells. Nieri, P., Romiti, N., Adinolfi, B., Chicca, A., Massarelli, I., Chieli, E. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Human mast cells take up and hydrolyze anandamide under the control of 5-lipoxygenase and do not express cannabinoid receptors. Maccarrone, M., Fiorucci, L., Erba, F., Bari, M., Finazzi-Agrò, A., Ascoli, F. FEBS Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Inhibition of nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages by cannabinoids and palmitoylethanolamide. Ross, R.A., Brockie, H.C., Pertwee, R.G. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular biology of the enzymes that degrade endocannabinoids. Puffenbarger, R.A. Current drug targets. CNS and neurological disorders. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide, but not the CB2 ligand palmitoylethanolamide, prevents the viscero-visceral hyper-reflexia associated with inflammation of the rat urinary bladder. Jaggar, S.I., Sellaturay, S., Rice, A.S. Neurosci. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Palmitoylethanolamide enhances anandamide stimulation of human vanilloid VR1 receptors. De Petrocellis, L., Davis, J.B., Di Marzo, V. FEBS Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. 'Entourage' effects of N-acyl ethanolamines at human vanilloid receptors. Comparison of effects upon anandamide-induced vanilloid receptor activation and upon anandamide metabolism. Smart, D., Jonsson, K.O., Vandevoorde, S., Lambert, D.M., Fowler, C.J. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Evidence of a novel site mediating anandamide-induced negative inotropic and coronary vasodilatator responses in rat isolated hearts. Ford, W.R., Honan, S.A., White, R., Hiley, C.R. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on immunologically induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. Lau, A.H., Chow, S.S. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Diurnal variation of arachidonoylethanolamine, palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide in the brain of the rat. Murillo-Rodriguez, E., Désarnaud, F., Prospéro-García, O. Life Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. The effect of long-term administration of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)palmitamide on the chemotherapy of RBA rat leukemia. Svec, P., Béderová, E., Svec, F. Neoplasma (1975) [Pubmed]
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