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Chemical Compound Review

roxarsone     (4-hydroxy-3-nitro- phenyl)arsonic acid

Synonyms: Roxarson, Ristat, Roxarsonum, Ren-O-sal, Aklomix-3, ...
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Disease relevance of roxarsone


High impact information on roxarsone


Chemical compound and disease context of roxarsone


Biological context of roxarsone


Anatomical context of roxarsone

  • S9 from small intestine increased the mutagenic effect of the 3-nitro and 3-N-hydroxylated compounds, but it was unable to activate the amino compounds [18].
  • Post-edge XANES features of litter particles are dissimilar to those of the organo-As(V) compound in poultry feed (i.e., roxarsone), suggesting possible degradation/transformation of roxarsone in the litter and/or in poultry digestive tracts [19].
  • Birds medicated with roxarsone and in another experiment with zoalene in the feed produced higher oocysts counts than unmedicated control birds receiving the same oocyst dose of Eimeria tenella or a mixture of six species (E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. acervulina, and E. mitvati) [20].
  • Effect of 3-nitro-10 on egg yolk pigmentation [21].
  • Light and electron microscopic lesions in peripheral nerves of broiler chickens due to roxarsone and lasalocid toxicoses [22].

Associations of roxarsone with other chemical compounds

  • The aromatic organoarsenic compounds 4-hydroxy 3-nitrobenzenearsenic acid (Roxarsone, ROX) or 4-aminoben-zenearsenic acid (p-arsanilic acid, p-ASA) are used as feed additives in the poultry industry for disease control and enhanced feed efficiency [23].
  • Compatibility and anticoccidial activity of lasalocid in combination with roxarsone and antibiotics against Eimeria mixed infection in chicks [24].
  • Effects of roxarsone and monensin on digital flexoral tendons of broiler chickens [25].
  • Laboratory experiments have shown that arsenite can be cleaved photolytically from the roxarsone moiety at pH 4-8 and that the degradation rate increases with increasing pH [26].
  • It is concluded that roxarsone and bacitracin methylene disalicylate do not interfere with the acquisition of immunity to Eimeria species in broilers [12].
  • Increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity was observed for roxarsone but not for As(III)-induced angiogenesis [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of roxarsone


  1. Methanogenic inhibition by arsenic compounds. Sierra-Alvarez, R., Cortinas, I., Yenal, U., Field, J.A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Arsenic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail poultry products. Sapkota, A.R., Price, L.B., Silbergeld, E.K., Schwab, K.J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Response of broiler chickens to addition of bacitracin methylene disalicylate and roxarsone to diets containing halofuginone. Waldroup, P.W., Hellwig, H.M., Johnson, Z.B., Fell, R.V., Grant, R.J., Damron, B.L., Hebert, J.A., Siccardi, F.J., Primo, R.A. Poult. Sci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid on copper utilization by the pig, rat and chick. Czarnecki, G.L., Edmonds, M.S., Izquierdo, O.A., Baker, D.H. J. Anim. Sci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Feed additive interactions in the chicken: reduction of tissue copper deposition by dietary roxarsone in healthy and in Eimeria acervulina-infected or Eimeria tenella-infected chicks. Czarnecki, G.L., Baker, D.H. Poult. Sci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. 3-Nitro-3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolones. Excitatory amino acid antagonists acting at glycine-site NMDA and (RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors. Carling, R.W., Leeson, P.D., Moore, K.W., Smith, J.D., Moyes, C.R., Mawer, I.M., Thomas, S., Chan, T., Baker, R., Foster, A.C. J. Med. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Anaerobic biotransformation of roxarsone and related N-substituted phenylarsonic acids. Cortinas, I., Field, J.A., Kopplin, M., Garbarino, J.R., Gandolfi, A.J., Sierra-Alvarez, R. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Frameshift mutations induced by four isomeric nitroacridines and their des-nitro counterpart in the lacZ reversion assay in Escherichia coli. Hoffmann, G.R., Yin, C.C., Terry, C.E., Ferguson, L.R., Denny, W.A. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Environmental fate of roxarsone in poultry litter. Part II. Mobility of arsenic in soils amended with poultry litter. Rutherford, D.W., Bednar, A.J., Garbarino, J.R., Needham, R., Staver, K.W., Wershaw, R.L. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Arsenic in tissues of sheep and milk of dairy cows fed arsanilic acid and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid. Calvert, C.C., Smith, L.W. J. Anim. Sci. (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Arsenic-sulfur amino acid interactions in the chick. Czarnecki, G.L., Baker, D.H., Garst, J.E. J. Anim. Sci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of roxarsone and bacitracin methylene disalicylate on the development of immunity to Eimeria in broilers given a live coccidiosis vaccine. Chapman, H.D., Fitzcoy, S.H. Poult. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Chromosome aberrations induced by 9-aminoacridine derivatives. Michalska, J. Mutat. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of roxarsone inclusion in the diet on the performance and hepatic lipid metabolism of laying Tsaiya duck. Chen, K.L., Wu, C.P., Chiou, P.W. Br. Poult. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Fate of arsenic compounds in poultry litter upon land application. Jackson, B.P., Seaman, J.C., Bertsch, P.M. Chemosphere (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Anticandidial effect of phenylbutene derivatives and their interaction with ergosterol. Tabakova, S., Manolov, I., Kantardjiev, T., Mateev, G., Stoichkov, K., Braykova, A., Vakhan, V., Golovinsky, E. Z. Naturforsch., C, J. Biosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Use of structure-activity relationships to estimate antiallergic activity of 4-hydroxy 3-nitro coumarins. Chartron, M., Royer, J. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Mutagenicity of some derivatives of dipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazoles in Salmonella typhimurium with metabolic activation by rat liver and small intestine subcellular fractions. N'Goy, K., Saint-Ruf, G., de Meester, C. Mutat. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Arsenic speciation and reactivity in poultry litter. Arai, Y., Lanzirotti, A., Sutton, S., Davis, J.A., Sparks, D.L. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Relative value of oocyst counts in evaluating anticoccidial activity. Reid, W.M. Avian Dis. (1975) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of 3-nitro-10 on egg yolk pigmentation. Janky, D.M., Dukes, M.G., Harms, R.H. Poult. Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Light and electron microscopic lesions in peripheral nerves of broiler chickens due to roxarsone and lasalocid toxicoses. Gregory, D.G., Vanhooser, S.L., Stair, E.L. Avian Dis. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Determination of arsenic speciation in poultry wastes by IC-ICP-MS. Jackson, B.P., Bertsch, P.M. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Compatibility and anticoccidial activity of lasalocid in combination with roxarsone and antibiotics against Eimeria mixed infection in chicks. Schildknecht, E.G., Trainor, C., Givens, S.V., De Young, W.W., Mitrovic, M. Poult. Sci. (1980) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of roxarsone and monensin on digital flexoral tendons of broiler chickens. Rath, N.C., Chapman, H.D., Fitz-Coy, S.H., Balog, J.M., Huff, G.R., Huff, W.E. Poult. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Photodegradation of roxarsone in poultry litter leachates. Bednar, A.J., Garbarino, J.R., Ferrer, I., Rutherford, D.W., Wershaw, R.L., Ranville, J.F., Wildeman, T.R. Sci. Total Environ. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Angiogenic potential of 3-nitro-4-hydroxy benzene arsonic acid (roxarsone). Basu, P., Ghosh, R.N., Grove, L.E., Klei, L., Barchowsky, A. Environ. Health Perspect. (2008) [Pubmed]
  28. Sensitive method for the determination of roxarsone using solid-phase microextraction with multi-detector gas chromatography. Roerdink, A.R., Aldstadt, J.H. Journal of chromatography. A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Determination of Roxarsone in feeds using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Sapp, R.E., Davidson, S. Journal of AOAC International. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Oral treatment of mule ducks with arsenicals for inducing fatty liver. Chen, K.L., Chiout, P.W. Poult. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
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