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Chemical Compound Review

ARSANILIC ACID     (4-aminophenyl)arsonic acid

Synonyms: Pro-Gen, R-Sonic, Progen 90, Antoxylic acid, Atoxylic acid, ...
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Disease relevance of ARSANILIC ACID


Psychiatry related information on ARSANILIC ACID

  • In a preparatory experiment, acute IDPN (890 mg/kg, IP) and intratympanic arsanilic acid caused similar alterations in locomotor activity, rearings, and scores for vestibular impairment [5].

High impact information on ARSANILIC ACID

  • Splenocytes of BALB/c mice injected with AS-101 increased production of IL-2 and CSF in vitro in the presence of mitogen [1].
  • Splenocytes of mice treated in vivo with AS-101 expressed high levels of IL-2 receptor [1].
  • Mononuclear cells of normal donors acquired responsiveness to recombinant IL-2 and bound monoclonal antibody to IL-2 receptor after incubation with AS-101 [1].
  • The stimulation of lymphocytes by AS-101 apparently involves an increase in intracellular free calcium [1].
  • Painting mice on the skin with the diazonium salt of p-arsanilic acid elicited two types of T cell activity [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of ARSANILIC ACID

  • The antitumor drug AS-101 [ammoniumtrichloro (dioxoethylene-O,O')tellurate(IV)] is the first tellurium-containing compound that has been identified as possessing immunomodulating properties and minimal toxicity [7].
  • It also confirms that 3-nitro has a higher absolute toxicity than arsanilic acid in pigs as well as a lower margin of safety [8].

Biological context of ARSANILIC ACID

  • An excess of births of heterozygotes in the offspring of the 107 AS mothers (144 AS:89 AA, chi2=12.98; p<0.001) and 95 AT mothers (117 AT:66 AA, chi2=14.21; p<0.001) married to homozygous normal fathers was observed, but not for births to the reverse parental combinations (103 AS: 101 AA, chi2=0.019; p=0.89 and 57 AT:42 AA, chi2=2.27; p=0.13) [9].
  • The results confirm the mode of action of AS-101 as a real modulating agent of cell proliferation [10].
  • Dietary salt (NaCl) levels (.2, .5%), dietary arsanilic acid levels (0, 100, 200 ppm), supplemental copper levels (0, 125, 250 ppm) and waste management systems (oxidation ditch, anaerobic deep pit, anaerobic lagoon) were compared in this series of studies [11].

Anatomical context of ARSANILIC ACID

  • CRIA+ and CRIA+/- clonotypes were as heterogeneous as CRIA- antibodies, but a majority of CRIA+/- clones maintained a characteristic relative affinity for two of the haptens, p-arsanilic acid (p-ARS) and p-azobenene arsonic acid-N-tyrosine (ABA-tyr), which was identical to the prototype CRIA+ hybridoma protein R16 [12].
  • A crude preparation of alkaline phosphatase (EC from calf intestinal mucosa was purified by affinity chromatography on Sepharose-bound derivatives of arsanilic acid, which was found to be a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme [13].
  • Although both AS-101 and interferon (IFN)-gamma inhibit IL-10, AS-101, unlike IFN-gamma, does not prime macrophages for LPS-induced nitric oxide release and does not appear to significantly affect monocyte HLA-DR expression [14].
  • The immunomodulator AS-101 inhibits IL-10 release and augments TNF alpha and IL-1 alpha release by mouse and human mononuclear phagocytes [14].
  • Results showed that dietary inclusion of 50 and 100 mg/kg of 4-arsanilic acid significantly improved feed utilization and egg production, but the concentration of As in the tissues and feces in groups fed 4-arsanilic acid was higher than in control group [15].

Associations of ARSANILIC ACID with other chemical compounds


Gene context of ARSANILIC ACID


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ARSANILIC ACID

  • These results indicate that AS-101 is potentially useful in the treatment of clinical conditions involving immunosuppression [1].
  • AS-101 was found to be non-toxic to cells from both patient and control groups; it increased the production of IL-2, elevated the percentage of Tac-positive cells even among cells that had been pre-treated with pronase, and ameliorated the absorption of IL-2 [21].
  • Synthetic peptides containing these amino acids were modified with diazotized arsanilic acid and subjected to N-terminal sequence analysis [22].
  • Fluorimetric determination of arsanilic acid by flow-injection analysis using on-line photo-oxidation [23].


  1. A new immunomodulating compound (AS-101) with potential therapeutic application. Sredni, B., Caspi, R.R., Klein, A., Kalechman, Y., Danziger, Y., Ben Ya'akov, M., Tamari, T., Shalit, F., Albeck, M. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Specific and nonspecific imaging of localized Fisher immunotype 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection with radiolabeled monoclonal antibody. Rubin, R.H., Young, L.S., Hansen, W.P., Nedelman, M., Wilkinson, R., Nelles, M.J., Callahan, R., Khaw, B.A., Strauss, H.W. J. Nucl. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Structural and antigenic studies of an idiotype-bearing murine antibody to the arsonate hapten. Marchalonis, J.J., Warr, G.W., Smith, P., Begg, G.S., Morgan, F.J. Biochemistry (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Inhibition of the reverse transcriptase activity and replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by AS 101 in vitro. Vonsover, A., Loya, S., Sredni, B., Albeck, M., Gotlieb-Stematsky, T., Araf, O., Hizi, A. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparison of behavioral, vestibular, and axonal effects of subchronic IDPN in the rat. Llorens, J., Rodríguez-Farré, E. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Contact sensitivity to azobenzenearsonate and its inhibition after interaction of sensitized cells with antigen-conjugated cells. Thomas, W.R., Smith, F.I., Walker, I.D., Miller, J.F. J. Exp. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Determination of tellurium in urine by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using (4-fluorophenyl)magnesium bromide as a derivatizing agent and a comparison with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Aggarwal, S.K., Kinter, M., Nicholson, J., Herold, D.A. Anal. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Experimental 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid toxicosis in pigs. Rice, D.A., Kennedy, S., McMurray, C.H., Blanchflower, W.J. Res. Vet. Sci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Maternal effect: an additional mechanism maintaining balanced polymorphisms of haemoglobinopathies? Duchovni-Silva, I., Ramalho, A.S. Ann. Hum. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. AS-101: a modulator of in vitro T-cell proliferation. Montero, R., Gonsebatt, M.E., Gerson, R., Rojas, E., Herrera, L.A., Ostrosky-Wegman, P. Anticancer Drugs (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of dietary salt, arsenic and copper additions and waste management systems on selected microbial organisms in swine wastes. Sutton, A.L., Brumm, M.C., Kelly, D.T., Henderson, C.A., Mayrose, V.B. J. Anim. Sci. (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Regulation of azophenylarsonate-specific repertoire expression. II. Fine specificity and isotype heterogeneity of anti-arsonate antibodies. Sigal, N.H. J. Immunol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Affinity-chromatography purification of alkaline phosphatase from calf intestine. Brenna, O., Perrella, M., Pace, M., Pietta, P.G. Biochem. J. (1975) [Pubmed]
  14. The immunomodulator AS-101 inhibits IL-10 release and augments TNF alpha and IL-1 alpha release by mouse and human mononuclear phagocytes. Strassmann, G., Kambayashi, T., Jacob, C.O., Sredni, D. Cell. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of arsanilic Acid on performance and residual of arsenic in tissue of Japanese laying quail. Desheng, Q., Niya, Z. Poult. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Total arsenic in urine: palladium-persulfate vs nickel as a matrix modifier for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nixon, D.E., Mussmann, G.V., Eckdahl, S.J., Moyer, T.P. Clin. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Reactions of lipoamide dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase with arsonic acids and arsonous acids. Knowles, F.C. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Arsanilic acid-Sepharose chromatography of pyruvate kinase from KB cells. Huang, R.N., Yeh, H.Y., Cheng, S.C., Chow, L.P., Lee, T.C. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. The biological activity and immunotherapeutic properties of AS-101, a synthetic organotellurium compound. Sredni, B., Caspi, R.R., Lustig, S., Klein, A., Kalechman, Y., Danziger, Y., Ben Ya'akov, M., Tamari, T., Shalit, F., Albeck, M. Nat. Immun. Cell Growth Regul. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. In vitro cytokine profile in childhood alopecia areata and the immunomodulatory effects of AS-101. Shohat, M., Mimouni, D., Ben-Amitai, D., Sredni, B., Sredni, D., Shohat, B., David, M. Clin. Exp. Dermatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of the new immunoregulator AS-101 on in vitro functions of mononuclear cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Alcocer-Varela, J., Alarcon-Segovia, D., Sredni, B., Albeck, M. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Protein modification by diazotized arsanilic acid: synthesis and characterization of the phenylthiohydantoin derivatives of azobenzene arsonate-coupled tyrosine, histidine, and lysine residues and their sequential allotment in labeled peptides. Schwaller, B., Sigrist, H. Anal. Biochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Fluorimetric determination of arsanilic acid by flow-injection analysis using on-line photo-oxidation. Pérez-Ruiz, T., Martínez-Lozano, C., Tomás, V., Martín, J. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. (2002) [Pubmed]
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