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Chemical Compound Review

CHEMBL167255     2-[(E)-2-(5- carbamimidoylbenzofuran-2...

Synonyms: SureCN7979972, True blue, AC1NUF6O, LS-34951, NSC240899, ...
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Disease relevance of True blue

  • Nearly 50% (range 24-74%) of lumbar dorsal root ganglion neurons containing TB also were labeled with NY.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[1]

High impact information on True blue

  • When True blue is injected into the pyramidal decussation during the first postnatal week and the animals are allowed to survive until the fourth postnatal week, the distribution of pyramidal tract neurones is as widespread as in the immediate postnatal period and includes the entire visual cortex [2].
  • Retrograde transport of the fluorescent tracer True blue was combined with dopamine-beta-hydroxylase immunohistochemistry 2 weeks after treatment of rats with 50 mg/kg of DSP-4 [3].
  • Preganglionic sympathetic neurons of rats were retrogradely labeled by the simultaneous exposure of the cervical sympathetic trunk (CST) and the adrenal medulla to Fluoro-Gold and True blue, contrasting fluorescent dyes [4].
  • The ChAT-positive pial nerve fibers were few in relation to the VIP-immunoreactive fibers, as was also illustrated by the few TB-positive cells in the ganglia that were ChAT positive as compared with the number of cells that were VIP positive [5].
  • By the aid of the retrograde axonal tracer True Blue (TB) applied to the middle cerebral arterial wall, such fibers were shown to originate in a subgroup of ChAT-positive cells in the sphenopalatine, otic, and internal carotid ganglia, which, in addition, contained VIP [5].

Chemical compound and disease context of True blue


Biological context of True blue

  • Retrograde-tracing with True Blue (TB) revealed that the cell-size spectrum of the trigeminal cells sending peripheral processes to the MN (TB MN cells) ranged from 75.9 to 1560.5 microns2 (or from 9.8 to 44.6 microns in diameter); approximately 53% of TB MN cells were 300-600 microns2 [7].
  • The animals were allowed to survive 50 to 100 days postpartum, then neurons with spinothalamic and spinocerebellar projections were retrogradely filled with fluorescent axonal tracers, Fluoro-Gold or True blue, which were pressure injected into the dorsal thalamus and cerebellum in various combinations in the same and in separate animals [8].

Anatomical context of True blue

  • We have now begun to study the distribution of the neurones of origin of the pyramidal tract during the postnatal development of the rat neocortex using the recently introduced retrogradely transported fluorescent marker, True blue [2].
  • Neurons injured during a cervical spinal cord hemisection lesion were labeled with true blue (TB) [9].
  • FG was injected into rostral brain centers (dorsal thalamus and midbrain), and TB was injected into the caudal brainstem (medulla) in young adult rats previously administered [3H]thymidine in utero [10].
  • The TB-labeled nerve cell bodies were further examined for the presence of neuropeptides [6].
  • Transection of MhN also induced the appearance of NPY-IR in the trigeminal ganglion but to a lesser extent (approximately 17% of TB MhN cells) [7].

Associations of True blue with other chemical compounds

  • Unilateral microinjections of true blue (TB) fluorescent dye were made into the midbrain central gray (MCG) of ovariectomized animals primed with estradiol to induce PR and injected intracerebroventricularly with colchicine to visualize SOM-IR neurons [11].
  • The sites of origin of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) containing projections to the amygdala and the interpeduncular nucleus were studied with immunofluorescence for GnRH in combination with retrograde transport of True blue [12].
  • In larval lamprey, seven fluorescent tracers were tested as potential candidates for retrograde double labeling of descending brain neurons: Fluoro Gold (FG); fluorescein dextran amine (FDA); True Blue (TB); cascade blue dextran amine (CBDA); Fast Blue (FB); Texas red dextran amine (TRDA); and tetramethylrhodamine dextran amine (RDA) [13].
  • Rhodamine B Isothiocyanate (RITC), Fluorogold (FG) and True blue (TB) were injected into either the visual Wulst (thalamofugal pathway) or the nucleus rotundus (Rt; tectofugal pathway) and the retrogradely labelled neurones in the nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars dorsalis (GLd) or the optic tectum, respectively, were counted [14].
  • In the trigeminal ganglion, numerous TB labeled cell bodies contained CGRP and a minor population stored SP, a few cell bodies were seen to store NOS or PACAP [15].

Gene context of True blue

  • Most of the TB-labeled nerve cell bodies in the superior cervical ganglia contained NPY [16].
  • Through the combined demonstration of the retrograde transport of True blue and the immunohistochemical staining of galanin (GAL), the GAL neurons that project to the median eminence were identified [17].
  • After the injection of True blue into the median eminence, retrogradely-labeled CRF producing neurons were identified in the medial division of the paraventricular nucleus and the periventricular nucleus [18].
  • After small injections of True blue into the amygdala, retrogradely labeled GnRH producing neurons were identified in the rostral medial septum, the caudal roots of the nervus terminalis, diagonal band, nucleus triangularis septi, nucleus interstitialis striae terminalis, and in the ventrolateral hypothalamus [12].
  • Combination of retrograde tracing with True blue or Fluorogold and immunocytochemistry demonstrated that SP-positive SC neurons projected to the parabigeminal nucleus in both hamster and rat [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of True blue

  • In order to determine which CA neurons gave rise to striatal projections, the neostriatum was injected with True Blue (TB), and sections through the midbrain were processed for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and visualized by immunofluorescence [20].
  • Dual retrograde axonal tracers, Fluoro-Gold (FG) and true blue (TB), were used in conjunction with [3H]thymidine autoradiography to determine the number and neurogenic pattern of neurons with supraspinal projections in the superficial dorsal horn (SDH), i.e., laminae I and II, in spinal segment L1 of the rat [10].
  • The origin of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive nerve fibres in the genital organs of the female rat was investigated by immunocytochemistry and retrograde tracing with the fluorescent dye True blue [21].
  • Since True blue can remain present in brainstem cholinergic neurons surviving for over 365 days after axotomy, loss of True blue suggests breakdown of membrane integrity and cell death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[22]


  1. Demonstration of the potential for chronically injured neurons to regenerate axons into intraspinal peripheral nerve grafts. Houle, J.D. Exp. Neurol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Selective collateral elimination in early postnatal development restricts cortical distribution of rat pyramidal tract neurones. Stanfield, B.B., O'Leary, D.D., Fricks, C. Nature (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. The noradrenergic neurotoxin DSP-4 eliminates the coeruleospinal projection but spares projections of the A5 and A7 groups to the ventral horn of the rat spinal cord. Lyons, W.E., Fritschy, J.M., Grzanna, R. J. Neurosci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. The intermediolateral cell column of the thoracic spinal cord is comprised of target-specific subnuclei: evidence from retrograde transport studies and immunohistochemistry. Appel, N.M., Elde, R.P. J. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Origins and pathways of choline acetyltransferase-positive parasympathetic nerve fibers to cerebral vessels in rat. Suzuki, N., Hardebo, J.E., Owman, C. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Neuronal pathways to the rat middle meningeal artery revealed by retrograde tracing and immunocytochemistry. Uddman, R., Hara, H., Edvinsson, L. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Cell size-specific appearance of neuropeptide Y in the trigeminal ganglion following peripheral axotomy of different branches of the mandibular nerve of the rat. Wakisaka, S., Takikita, S., Sasaki, Y., Kato, J., Tabata, M.J., Kurisu, K. Brain Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Neurogenesis of spinothalamic and spinocerebellar tract neurons in the lumbar spinal cord of the rat. Beal, J.A., Bice, T.N. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Treatment of the chronically injured spinal cord with neurotrophic factors can promote axonal regeneration from supraspinal neurons. Ye, J.H., Houle, J.D. Exp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Quantitative and neurogenic analysis of neurons with supraspinal projections in the superficial dorsal horn of the rat lumbar spinal cord. Bice, T.N., Beal, J.A. J. Comp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Projections from ventrolateral hypothalamic neurons containing progesterone receptors and somatostatin to the midbrain central gray in the female guinea pig. Dufourny, L., Warembourg, M. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Sites of origin of gonadotropin releasing hormone containing projections to the amygdala and the interpeduncular nucleus. Jennes, L. Brain Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Fluorescent tracers as potential candidates for double labeling of descending brain neurons in larval lamprey. Zhang, L., McClellan, A.D. J. Neurosci. Methods (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Differential sensitivities of the two visual pathways of the chick to labelling by fluorescent retrograde tracers. Deng, C., Rogers, L.J. J. Neurosci. Methods (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Distribution and origin of nerve fibers in the rat temporomandibular joint capsule. Uddman, R., Grunditz, T., Kato, J., Sundler, F. Anat. Embryol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Distribution and origin of the peripheral innervation of rat cervical esophagus. Uddman, R., Grunditz, T., Luts, A., Desai, H., Fernström, G., Sundler, F. Dysphagia. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Immunohistochemical identification of galanin and growth hormone-releasing factor-containing neurons projecting to the median eminence of the rat. Niimi, M., Takahara, J., Sato, M., Kawanishi, K. Neuroendocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Immunohistochemical identification of corticotropin releasing factor-containing neurons projecting to the stalk-median eminence of the rat. Niimi, M., Takahara, J., Hashimoto, K., Kawanishi, K. Peptides (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. A substance P projection from the superior colliculus to the parabigeminal nucleus in the rat and hamster. Bennett-Clarke, C., Mooney, R.D., Chiaia, N.L., Rhoades, R.W. Brain Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Organization of midbrain catecholamine-containing nuclei and their projections to the striatum in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Hazlett, J.C., Ho, R.H., Martin, G.F. J. Comp. Neurol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. CGRP-immunoreactive nerves in the genitalia of the female rat originate from dorsal root ganglia T11-L3 and L6-S1: a combined immunocytochemical and retrograde tracing study. Inyama, C.O., Wharton, J., Su, H.C., Polak, J.M. Neurosci. Lett. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Loss of true blue labelling from the medial septum following transection of the fimbria-fornix: evidence for the death of cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons. O'Brien, T.S., Svendsen, C.N., Isacson, O., Sofroniew, M.V. Brain Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
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