The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Calca  -  calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: CAL6, CGRP, Cal1, Calc, RATCAL6, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Calca

  • The 32% of ganglion cells projecting to the cerebral vasculature that contain CGRP stands in contrast to the 12% CGRP positive seen in the population of ganglion cells projecting out to another target (the forehead), and the 21 and 23% CGRP positive observed in the mandibular branch and entire ganglion, respectively [1].
  • Development of angiotensin II-induced hypertension: role of CGRP and its receptor [2].
  • Our group has reported that exogenous CGRP may prevent or reverse hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats [3].
  • We wanted to determine whether there was an adaptive functional response to reduced CGRP levels in hypoxia [4].
  • This activity is potentiated in the presence of CGRP which coexists with SP and NKA indicating that neurogenic inflammation may be augmented by these interactions [5].

Psychiatry related information on Calca


High impact information on Calca


Chemical compound and disease context of Calca

  • Expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P and protein kinase C in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons following chronic exposure to mu, delta and kappa opiates [14].
  • Autoradiography of lung sections incubated with 125I-labelled CGRP and other vasoactive peptides was used to quantify their binding sites, in male Wistar rats exposed to periods of hypoxia (inspiratory oxygen fraction (FI,O2) = 0.1) ranging 0-10 days (n = 5 each), in controls, and in rats treated neonatally with capsaicin [4].
  • CGRP-induced (5 x 10(-7)M) relaxation of pulmonary artery was reduced, compared with controls, following 8 and 21 days of hypoxia (mean +/- SEM) percentage of relaxation to phenylephrine: 78 +/- 3, 36 +/- 5 and 32 +/- 3, respectively) and was abolished by removal of endothelium [4].
  • Analysis of the backlabelled population in the osteoarthritis model and controls showed an increase in both CGRP and TRPV1 expression in the iodoacetate model compared with control animals [15].
  • The release and vascular effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) during acute alveolar hypoxia (O2 2%) were examined in isolated blood-perfused rat lungs [16].

Biological context of Calca

  • Infusion of rat alpha-CGRP (15 and 75 pmol/min) significantly increased GMBF in a dose-dependent manner, whereas mean arterial blood pressure was significantly lowered only by the higher dose of CGRP [17].
  • The mechanisms whereby androgen regulates gene expression in the SNB of adult rats are largely unknown, although a retrograde influence from the BC/LA muscles has been suggested to underlie the suppression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression observed in SNB motoneurons after systemic androgen treatment [18].
  • Distinct receptor activity-modifying protein domains differentially modulate interaction with calcitonin receptors [19].
  • Thus, both the up-regulation of CGRP in adjacent intact nerves and the decrease in presynaptic inhibition at the central terminal of the injured primary afferent could cause the hyper-excitability of dorsal horn neurons and contribute to the molecular mechanisms of this neuropathic pain model [20].
  • The actions of CT on GGH3 cell proliferation were examined in the absence or presence of anti-TGF-beta 1 serum [21].

Anatomical context of Calca


Associations of Calca with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Calca

  • CSR specifically binds to two regions in the calcitonin-specific exon 4 RNA previously demonstrated to function as a bipartate exonic splice enhancer (ESE) [23].
  • Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a vasorelaxant and positive inotropic and chronotropic peptide that binds to the calcitonin receptor-like receptor [24].
  • Calcitonin receptor binding sites were identified in renal cortex and medulla using the radioligand 125I-salmon calcitonin [25].
  • We investigated the effects of chronic systemic injections of salmon calcitonin on the [3H]-8-OHDPAT binding to 5-HT1A receptors in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in adrenalectomized and intact (non adrenalectomized) rats [26].
  • The involvement of a hypocalcemic hormone calcitonin (CT) in the expression of hepatic Ca(2+)-binding protein regucalcin mRNA was investigated [27].

Co-localisations of Calca

  • Triple-immunofluorescence staining showed that galanin-like immunoreactivity co-localized with substance P- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivities in many nerve fibres and terminals in laminae I and II of the dorsal horn [28].
  • Neither tyrosine hydroxylase nor neuropeptide Y-immunoreactivity was co-localized in CGRP-containing fibers [29].
  • Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide which are colocalized in a proportion of the somatostatin neurons were unaffected [30].
  • However, in the Sprague-Dawley rat, NK1 receptor immunoreactivity was only co-localized with calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in a minority of fibers of the circular muscle [31].
  • On the other hand, calbindin was also found in spinal afferents to the esophagus where it was co-localized with calcitonin gene-related peptide [32].

Regulatory relationships of Calca

  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicates that CGRP inhibits pancreatic enzyme secretion evoked by 2DG or CCK-8 via vagal pathways [22].
  • Moreover, CT stimulated TGF-beta 1 mRNA expression, as well as TGF-beta 1 synthesis, in a dose-dependent fashion [21].
  • The protective effects of ischemic and calcitonin gene-related peptide-induced preconditioning on myocardial injury by endothelin-1 in the isolated perfused rat heart [33].
  • A candidate calcitonin/CGRP splice regulator (CSR) isolated from rat brain was shown to inhibit calcitonin-specific splicing in vitro [23].
  • Binding of a candidate splice regulator to a calcitonin-specific splice enhancer regulates calcitonin/CGRP pre-mRNA splicing [23].

Other interactions of Calca


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Calca


  1. Enrichment of a vasoactive neuropeptide (calcitonin gene related peptide) in the trigeminal sensory projection to the intracranial arteries. O'Connor, T.P., van der Kooy, D. J. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Development of angiotensin II-induced hypertension: role of CGRP and its receptor. Li, J., Wang, D.H. J. Hypertens. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. mRNA expression of novel CGRP1 receptors and their activity-modifying proteins in hypoxic rat lung. Qing, X., Svaren, J., Keith, I.M. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Decreased endothelium-dependent pulmonary vasodilator effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide in hypoxic rats contrasts with increased binding sites. Mannan, M.M., Springall, D.R., Enard, C., Moradoghli-Haftvani, A., Eddahibi, S., Adnot, S., Polak, J.M. Eur. Respir. J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Potentiation of tachykinin-induced plasma protein extravasation by calcitonin gene-related peptide. Gamse, R., Saria, A. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Early maternal deprivation alters hippocampal levels of neuropeptide Y and calcitonin-gene related peptide in adult rats. Husum, H., Termeer, E., Mathé, A.A., Bolwig, T.G., Ellenbroek, B.A. Neuropharmacology (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Paraventricular nucleus administration of calcitonin gene-related peptide inhibits food intake and stimulates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Dhillo, W.S., Small, C.J., Jethwa, P.H., Russell, S.H., Gardiner, J.V., Bewick, G.A., Seth, A., Murphy, K.G., Ghatei, M.A., Bloom, S.R. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Prostaglandin E2: a neuromodulator in the central control of gastrointestinal motility and feeding behavior by calcitonin. Fargeas, M.J., Fioramonti, J., Buéno, L. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. The psychotomimetic drugs D-amphetamine and phencyclidine release calcitonin gene-related peptide in the limbic forebrain of the rat. Mathé, A.A., Hertel, P., Nomikos, G.G., Gruber, S., Mathé, J.M., Svensson, T.H. J. Neurosci. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of calcitonin on the alcohol drinking of rats. Laitinen, K., Sinclair, D., Nurmi, M., Hietala, R., Kröger, H., Kiianmaa, K., Salaspuro, M. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Vanilloid receptors on sensory nerves mediate the vasodilator action of anandamide. Zygmunt, P.M., Petersson, J., Andersson, D.A., Chuang, H., Sørgård, M., Di Marzo, V., Julius, D., Högestätt, E.D. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. The biological effects of endogenous nerve growth factor on adult sensory neurons revealed by a trkA-IgG fusion molecule. McMahon, S.B., Bennett, D.L., Priestley, J.V., Shelton, D.L. Nat. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Nerve growth factor regulates expression of neuropeptide genes in adult sensory neurons. Lindsay, R.M., Harmar, A.J. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P and protein kinase C in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons following chronic exposure to mu, delta and kappa opiates. Belanger, S., Ma, W., Chabot, J.G., Quirion, R. Neuroscience (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide and TRPV1 in a rat model of osteoarthritis. Fernihough, J., Gentry, C., Bevan, S., Winter, J. Neurosci. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Acute alveolar hypoxia increases endothelin-1 release but decreases release of calcitonin gene-related peptide in isolated perfused rat lungs. Helset, E., Kjaeve, J., Bjertnaes, L., Lundberg, J.M. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Neuropeptide control of rat gastric mucosal blood flow. Increase by calcitonin gene-related peptide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, but not substance P and neurokinin A. Holzer, P., Guth, P.H. Circ. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Direct androgenic regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in motoneurons of rats with mosaic androgen insensitivity. Monks, D.A., Vanston, C.M., Watson, N.V. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Distinct receptor activity-modifying protein domains differentially modulate interaction with calcitonin receptors. Udawela, M., Christopoulos, G., Tilakaratne, N., Christopoulos, A., Albiston, A., Sexton, P.M. Mol. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Change in mRNAs for neuropeptides and the GABA(A) receptor in dorsal root ganglion neurons in a rat experimental neuropathic pain model. Fukuoka, T., Tokunaga, A., Kondo, E., Miki, K., Tachibana, T., Noguchi, K. Pain (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Antiproliferative action of calcitonin on lactotrophs of the rat anterior pituitary gland: evidence for the involvement of transforming growth factor beta 1 in calcitonin action. Wang, Y.Q., Yuan, R., Sun, Y.P., Lee, T.J., Shah, G.V. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Mechanism of action of calcitonin gene-related peptide in inhibiting pancreatic enzyme secretion in rats. Li, Y., Kolligs, F., Owyang, C. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Binding of a candidate splice regulator to a calcitonin-specific splice enhancer regulates calcitonin/CGRP pre-mRNA splicing. Coleman, T.P., Tran, Q., Roesser, J.R. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Cardiomyopathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetes involves intra-axonal accumulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide and altered expression of its receptor in rats. Chottová Dvoráková, M., Kuncová, J., Pfeil, U., McGregor, G.P., Svíglerová, J., Slavíková, J., Kummer, W. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Localization and characterization of renal calcitonin receptors by in vitro autoradiography. Sexton, P.M., Adam, W.R., Moseley, J.M., Martin, T.J., Mendelsohn, F.A. Kidney Int. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Calcitonin increases 5-HT1A binding site densities in the brain of adrenalectomized rats. Boujrad, F., Dauphin, F., de Beaurepaire, R. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression of calcium-binding protein regucalcin mRNA in rat liver is stimulated by calcitonin: the hormonal effect is mediated through calcium. Yamaguchi, M., Kanayama, Y., Shimokawa, N. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Ultrastructural studies on peptides in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord--I. Co-existence of galanin with other peptides in primary afferents in normal rats. Zhang, X., Nicholas, A.P., Hökfelt, T. Neuroscience (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. The innervation of the immature rat ovary by calcitonin gene-related peptide. Calka, J., McDonald, J.K., Ojeda, S.R. Biol. Reprod. (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect of diabetes in the BB Wistar rat on the peptidergic component of the enteric innervation. Buchan, A.M. Digestion (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Cellular localization and distribution of neurokinin-1 receptors in the rat stomach. Yip, L., Kwok, Y.N., Buchan, A.M. Autonomic neuroscience : basic & clinical. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Vagal and spinal afferent innervation of the rat esophagus: a combined retrograde tracing and immunocytochemical study with special emphasis on calcium-binding proteins. Dütsch, M., Eichhorn, U., Wörl, J., Wank, M., Berthoud, H.R., Neuhuber, W.L. J. Comp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. The protective effects of ischemic and calcitonin gene-related peptide-induced preconditioning on myocardial injury by endothelin-1 in the isolated perfused rat heart. Peng, C.F., Li, Y.J., Deng, H.W., Xiong, Y. Life Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Dual intrinsic and extrinsic origins of CGRP- and NPY-immunoreactive nerves of rat gut and pancreas. Su, H.C., Bishop, A.E., Power, R.F., Hamada, Y., Polak, J.M. J. Neurosci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  35. Stimulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide synthesis and release: mechanisms for a novel antihypertensive drug, rutaecarpine. Deng, P.Y., Ye, F., Cai, W.J., Tan, G.S., Hu, C.P., Deng, H.W., Li, Y.J. J. Hypertens. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Characterization and effects on cAMP accumulation of adrenomedullin and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors in dissociated rat spinal cord cell culture. Takhshid, M.A., Poyner, D.R., Chabot, J.G., Fournier, A., Ma, W., Zheng, W.H., Owji, A.A., Quirion, R. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. Regional distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide-, substance P-, cholecystokinin-, Met5-enkephalin-, and dynorphin A (1-8)-like materials in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of adult rats: effects of dorsal rhizotomy and neonatal capsaicin. Pohl, M., Benoliel, J.J., Bourgoin, S., Lombard, M.C., Mauborgne, A., Taquet, H., Carayon, A., Besson, J.M., Cesselin, F., Hamon, M. J. Neurochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities