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Disease relevance of Cacao


High impact information on Cacao

  • Procyanidin B2 (epicatechin-(4beta-8)-epicatechin), which is present in grape seeds, apples, and cacao beans, has antioxidant properties [4].
  • Dietary flavanols and procyanidin oligomers from cocoa (Theobroma cacao) inhibit platelet function [5].
  • N-Coumaroyldopamine and N-caffeoyldopamine are clovamide-type phenylpropenoic acid amides found in Theobroma cacao [6].
  • High-quality annotation of this gene set using Blast and MetaFam produced annotation for 75% of the contigs and allowed us to identify the types of gene expressed in cacao beans and leaves [7].
  • Procyanidin oligomers of different sizes (monomer through nonamer), isolated from the seeds of Theobroma cacao, were recently examined for their ability to protect against peroxynitrite-dependent oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 and nitration of tyrosine and were found to be effective in attenuating these reactions [8].

Biological context of Cacao


Anatomical context of Cacao


Associations of Cacao with chemical compounds


Gene context of Cacao

  • Recent data has demonstrated that cacao liquor polyphenols (procyanidins) have antioxidant activity, inhibit mRNA expression of interleukin-2 and are potent inhibitors of acute inflammation [18].
  • This progeny resulted from a cross between two heterozygous cacao clones: an Upper-Amazon Forastero (UPA 402) and a Trinitario (UF 676) [19].
  • Sera from 195 humans, either workers in the cacao plantation or nearby residents, were all negative for VEE virus antibodies [20].
  • The investigated pesticides, which are used to control pests in the growing of cacao, are: Acephate, Propoxur, HCH, Heptachlor, Fenitrothion, Pirimiphos-methyl, Aldrin, Dieldrin, pp'-DDE, op-DDE and DDT [21].
  • Lipid composition of wild ecuadorian Theobroma subincanum Mart. seeds and comparison with two varieties of Theobroma cacao L [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cacao


  1. Pentameric procyanidin from Theobroma cacao selectively inhibits growth of human breast cancer cells. Ramljak, D., Romanczyk, L.J., Metheny-Barlow, L.J., Thompson, N., Knezevic, V., Galperin, M., Ramesh, A., Dickson, R.B. Mol. Cancer Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Does caffeine consumption during pregnancy increase the risk of fetal mortality? A literature review. Matijasevich, A., Santos, I.S., Barros, F.C. Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Inhibitory effects of aqueous extract of cacao bean husk on collagenase of Bacteroides gingivalis. Osawa, K., Matsumoto, T., Maruyama, T., Naito, Y., Okuda, K., Takazoe, I. Bull. Tokyo Dent. Coll. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Procyanidin B2 has anti- and pro-oxidant effects on metal-mediated DNA damage. Sakano, K., Mizutani, M., Murata, M., Oikawa, S., Hiraku, Y., Kawanishi, S. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Dietary flavanols and procyanidin oligomers from cocoa (Theobroma cacao) inhibit platelet function. Murphy, K.J., Chronopoulos, A.K., Singh, I., Francis, M.A., Moriarty, H., Pike, M.J., Turner, A.H., Mann, N.J., Sinclair, A.J. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Clovamide-Type Phenylpropenoic Acid Amides, N-Coumaroyldopamine and N-Caffeoyldopamine, Inhibit Platelet-Leukocyte Interactions via Suppressing P-Selectin Expression. Park, J.B., Schoene, N. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Gene discovery and microarray analysis of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) varieties. Jones, P.G., Allaway, D., Gilmour, D.M., Harris, C., Rankin, D., Retzel, E.R., Jones, C.A. Planta (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Reactions of peroxynitrite with cocoa procyanidin oligomers. Arteel, G.E., Schroeder, P., Sies, H. J. Nutr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of cacao liquor proanthocyanidins on PhIP-induced mutagenesis in vitro, and in vivo mammary and pancreatic tumorigenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Yamagishi, M., Natsume, M., Osakabe, N., Nakamura, H., Furukawa, F., Imazawa, T., Nishikawa, A., Hirose, M. Cancer Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Mapping quantitative trait loci for bean traits and ovule number in Theobroma cacao L. Clement, D., Risterucci, A.M., Motamayor, J.C., N'Goran, J., Lanaud, C. Genome (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Cacao bean shell poisoning in a dog. Drolet, R., Arendt, T.D., Stowe, C.M. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of natural food colorings on immunoglobulin production in vitro by rat spleen lymphocytes. Kuramoto, Y., Yamada, K., Tsuruta, O., Sugano, M. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Characterization of the genome of cacao swollen shoot virus. Lot, H., Djiekpor, E., Jacquemond, M. J. Gen. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Influence of dietary fats on atherosclerosis, coagulation and platelet phospholipids in rabbits. Renaud, S., Gautheron, P. Atherosclerosis (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. Protection against peroxynitrite by cocoa polyphenol oligomers. Arteel, G.E., Sies, H. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Analysis of catechins in Theobromacacao beans by cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Gotti, R., Furlanetto, S., Pinzauti, S., Cavrini, V. Journal of chromatography. A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Biochemical changes during the development of witches' broom: the most important disease of cocoa in Brazil caused by Crinipellis perniciosa. Scarpari, L.M., Meinhardt, L.W., Mazzafera, P., Pomella, A.W., Schiavinato, M.A., Cascardo, J.C., Pereira, G.A. J. Exp. Bot. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. The effect of cocoa procyanidins on the transcription and secretion of interleukin 1 beta in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Mao, T.K., Powell, J., Van de Water, J., Keen, C.L., Schmitz, H.H., Hammerstone, J.F., Gershwin, M.E. Life Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. A new cacao linkage map based on codominant markers: development and integration of 201 new microsatellite markers. Pugh, T., Fouet, O., Risterucci, A.M., Brottier, P., Abouladze, M., Deletrez, C., Courtois, B., Clement, D., Larmande, P., N'Goran, J.A., Lanaud, C. Theor. Appl. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Ecological studies of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in north-central Venezuela, 1997-1998. Salas, R.A., Garcia, C.Z., Liria, J., Barrera, R., Navarro, J.C., Medina, G., Vasquez, C., Fernandez, Z., Weaver, S.C. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Confirmation method for the identification and determination of some organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides in cocoa beans by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Rodríguez, P., Permanyer, J., Grases, J.M., González, C. J. Chromatogr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Lipid composition of wild ecuadorian Theobroma subincanum Mart. seeds and comparison with two varieties of Theobroma cacao L. Bruni, R., Bianchini, E., Bettarello, L., Sacchetti, G. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Chemoprevention of lung carcinogenesis by cacao liquor proanthocyanidins in a male rat multi-organ carcinogenesis model. Yamagishi, M., Natsume, M., Osakabe, N., Okazaki, K., Furukawa, F., Imazawa, T., Nishikawa, A., Hirose, M. Cancer Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
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