The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Tetrahydroxyadipic acid     2,3,4,5- tetrahydroxyhexanedioic acid

Synonyms: Schleimsaure, hexaric acid, AGN-PC-00JBGZ, NSC-8127, mucic acid, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of L-gularic acid


Psychiatry related information on L-gularic acid


High impact information on L-gularic acid

  • All receptor-independent retinoids and two receptor-dependent retinoids induced apoptosis, and the induction correlated significantly with increased expression of the mucin MUC1 (r =.83; P =.03) [7].
  • Retinoids with ester-linking groups did not induce apoptosis but decreased the growth fraction in correlation with MUC1 induction (r = -.93; P =.02) [7].
  • Evidence that gallbladder epithelial mucin enhances cholesterol cholelithogenesis in MUC1 transgenic mice [8].
  • In the present study, bile levels of glucaro-1:4-lactone (measured as glucaric acid) the leading inhibitor of beta-glucuronidase, were measured in both man and in rats fed high, medium, and low protein-fat diets [3].
  • For our studies, we have selected an epitope from the tandem-repeat unit of the high-molecular-weight MUC2 mucin glycoprotein, which can be underglycosylated in case of colon cancer [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of L-gularic acid


Biological context of L-gularic acid


Anatomical context of L-gularic acid

  • Another group of rabbits (n = 6) with 5 or 15 minutes of LAD occlusion were used to assess the affinity of 99mTc glucarate for the ischemic myocardium [5].
  • Recently, a highly glycosylated mucin MUC1 was detected on a majority of multiple myeloma cell lines [19].
  • We analyzed bone marrow and peripheral blood of 68 patients with HLA-A2-positive myeloma for the presence and functional activity of CD8 T cells specific for the MUC1-derived peptide LLLLTVLTV [19].
  • Here, we show that the mucin gene Muc1 is a PPARgamma target, whose expression is lost in PPARgamma null placentas [18].
  • Forty-four percent of the patients with MM contained elevated frequencies of MUC1-specific CD8 T cells in freshly isolated samples from peripheral blood (PB) or bone marrow (BM) compared with corresponding samples from healthy donors [19].

Associations of L-gularic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of L-gularic acid

  • Muc1 promoter is activated strongly and specifically by liganded PPARgamma but not PPARalpha or PPARdelta [18].
  • Differential mucin MUC7 gene expression in invasive bladder carcinoma in contrast to uniform MUC1 and MUC2 gene expression in both normal urothelium and bladder carcinoma [24].
  • These results were consistent with immunoblots using anti-MRP (MUC2 repeat peptide), anti-M3P (MUC3 repeat peptide), 139H2 (MUC1 peptide), anti-T (peanut lectin), anti-Tn (91S8), and anti-sialosyl Tn (JT10e) antibodies [25].
  • Cloning and analysis of cDNA encoding a major airway glycoprotein, human tracheobronchial mucin (MUC5) [26].
  • Differential expression of the human mucin genes MUC1 to MUC5 in relation to growth and differentiation of different mucus-secreting HT-29 cell subpopulations [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of L-gularic acid

  • After confirmation of LAD occlusion by 201Tl scintigraphy, a mixture of 99mTc glucarate (15.7 +/- 1.6 mCi) and 111In anti-myosin (0.53 +/- 0.03 mCi) was administered intravenously [5].
  • The feasibility of imaging with 99mTc glucarate was evaluated for the early diagnosis of nonreperfused and reperfused myocardial infarction and compared with localization of simultaneously administered 111In anti-myosin [5].
  • A decrease in MUC4 expression, confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses, resulted in diminished growth and clonogenic ability of antisense-MUC4-transfected (EIAS19) cells compared with parental, empty vector (ZEO) and sense transfected (ES6) control cells [28].
  • The noninvasive urinary parameters investigated were thioethers, D-glucaric acid, elements, and forward and reverse mutagenesis using bacterial bioassays [29].
  • In preparation for clinical trials, vaccines containing synthetic MUC1 peptides of different lengths and sequences mixed with various adjuvants or covalently attached, using different linker methods, to protein carrier keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) were studied in mice [30].


  1. Localization of mucin (MUC2 and MUC3) messenger RNA and peptide expression in human normal intestine and colon cancer. Chang, S.K., Dohrman, A.F., Basbaum, C.B., Ho, S.B., Tsuda, T., Toribara, N.W., Gum, J.R., Kim, Y.S. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Muc2-deficient mice spontaneously develop colitis, indicating that MUC2 is critical for colonic protection. Van der Sluis, M., De Koning, B.A., De Bruijn, A.C., Velcich, A., Meijerink, J.P., Van Goudoever, J.B., Büller, H.A., Dekker, J., Van Seuningen, I., Renes, I.B., Einerhand, A.W. Gastroenterology (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of diet on glucaric acid concentration in bile and the formation of calcium bilirubinate gallstones. Matsushiro, T., Suzuki, N., Sato, T., Maki, T. Gastroenterology (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Altered expression and allelic association of the hypervariable membrane mucin MUC1 in Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Vinall, L.E., King, M., Novelli, M., Green, C.A., Daniels, G., Hilkens, J., Sarner, M., Swallow, D.M. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Very early noninvasive detection of acute experimental nonreperfused myocardial infarction with 99mTc-labeled glucarate. Narula, J., Petrov, A., Pak, K.Y., Lister, B.C., Khaw, B.A. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Urinary D-glucaric acid, a marker substance for microsomal enzyme induction. Methodological aspects, responses to alcohol and findings in workers exposed to toluene. Sandstad, O., Osnes, T., Skar, V., Osnes, M. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of retinoids on cancerous phenotype and apoptosis in organotypic cultures of ovarian carcinoma. Guruswamy, S., Lightfoot, S., Gold, M.A., Hassan, R., Berlin, K.D., Ivey, R.T., Benbrook, D.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Evidence that gallbladder epithelial mucin enhances cholesterol cholelithogenesis in MUC1 transgenic mice. Wang, H.H., Afdhal, N.H., Gendler, S.J., Wang, D.Q. Gastroenterology (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Partial D-amino acid substitution: Improved enzymatic stability and preserved Ab recognition of a MUC2 epitope peptide. Tugyi, R., Uray, K., Iván, D., Fellinger, E., Perkins, A., Hudecz, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Metabolism of glucurolactone to glucarate in Parkinson's disease. Koller, W.C., Rope, S.D., Huber, S.J., Blumenthal, D.C., Blumenthal, H.J. Neurology (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Evolution of enzymatic activities in the enolase superfamily: crystallographic and mutagenesis studies of the reaction catalyzed by D-glucarate dehydratase from Escherichia coli. Gulick, A.M., Hubbard, B.K., Gerlt, J.A., Rayment, I. Biochemistry (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. MUC1 and the immunobiology of cancer. Taylor-Papadimitriou, J., Burchell, J.M., Plunkett, T., Graham, R., Correa, I., Miles, D., Smith, M. Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen expression in gastric carcinomas is associated with MUC1 mucin VNTR polymorphism. Santos-Silva, F., Fonseca, A., Caffrey, T., Carvalho, F., Mesquita, P., Reis, C., Almeida, R., David, L., Hollingsworth, M.A. Glycobiology (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. A solid-phase substrate of heparanase: its application to assay of human melanoma for heparan sulfate degradative activity. Nakajima, M., Irimura, T., Nicolson, G.L. Anal. Biochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Association of ulcerative colitis with rare VNTR alleles of the human intestinal mucin gene, MUC3. Kyo, K., Parkes, M., Takei, Y., Nishimori, H., Vyas, P., Satsangi, J., Simmons, J., Nagawa, H., Baba, S., Jewell, D., Muto, T., Lathrop, G.M., Nakamura, Y. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin. Li, Y., Bharti, A., Chen, D., Gong, J., Kufe, D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Cloning of the cellular receptor for feline leukemia virus subgroup C (FeLV-C), a retrovirus that induces red cell aplasia. Quigley, J.G., Burns, C.C., Anderson, M.M., Lynch, E.D., Sabo, K.M., Overbaugh, J., Abkowitz, J.L. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma controls Muc1 transcription in trophoblasts. Shalom-Barak, T., Nicholas, J.M., Wang, Y., Zhang, X., Ong, E.S., Young, T.H., Gendler, S.J., Evans, R.M., Barak, Y. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Enrichment of functional CD8 memory T cells specific for MUC1 in bone marrow of patients with multiple myeloma. Choi, C., Witzens, M., Bucur, M., Feuerer, M., Sommerfeldt, N., Trojan, A., Ho, A., Schirrmacher, V., Goldschmidt, H., Beckhove, P. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Association of lysosomal activity with sensitivity and resistance to tumor necrosis factor in murine L929 cells. Liddil, J.D., Dorr, R.T., Scuderi, P. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Novel hydrogen peroxide metabolism in suspension cells of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Morimoto, S., Tateishi, N., Matsuda, T., Tanaka, H., Taura, F., Furuya, N., Matsuyama, N., Shoyama, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Glutarate semialdehyde dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas. Purification, properties, and relation to L-lysine catabolism. Chang, Y.F., Adams, E. J. Biol. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Urinary D-glucaric acid excretion during rifampicin/isoniazid and anticonvulsant enzyme induction. Perry, W., Stamp, T.C. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Differential mucin MUC7 gene expression in invasive bladder carcinoma in contrast to uniform MUC1 and MUC2 gene expression in both normal urothelium and bladder carcinoma. Retz, M., Lehmann, J., Röder, C., Plötz, B., Harder, J., Eggers, J., Pauluschke, J., Kalthoff, H., Stöckle, M. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Expression and characterization of mucins associated with the resistance to methotrexate of human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line HT29. Dahiya, R., Lesuffleur, T., Kwak, K.S., Byrd, J.C., Barbat, A., Zweibaum, A., Kim, Y.S. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Cloning and analysis of cDNA encoding a major airway glycoprotein, human tracheobronchial mucin (MUC5). Meezaman, D., Charles, P., Daskal, E., Polymeropoulos, M.H., Martin, B.M., Rose, M.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Differential expression of the human mucin genes MUC1 to MUC5 in relation to growth and differentiation of different mucus-secreting HT-29 cell subpopulations. Lesuffleur, T., Porchet, N., Aubert, J.P., Swallow, D., Gum, J.R., Kim, Y.S., Real, F.X., Zweibaum, A. J. Cell. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Inhibition of MUC4 expression suppresses pancreatic tumor cell growth and metastasis. Singh, A.P., Moniaux, N., Chauhan, S.C., Meza, J.L., Batra, S.K. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Biological monitoring screening of patients provided antineoplastic drugs including adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, and vincristine. Newman, M.A., Hee, S.Q., Schoeny, R., Lowry, L. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Augmenting the immunogenicity of synthetic MUC1 peptide vaccines in mice. Zhang, S., Graeber, L.A., Helling, F., Ragupathi, G., Adluri, S., Lloyd, K.O., Livingston, P.O. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities