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Chemical Compound Review

Prestwick_764     4-[6-amino-3-(4- methoxyphenyl)pyridazin-1...

Synonyms: CHEMBL303580, SureCN593922, S106_SIGMA, CHEBI:193611, CHEBI:230874, ...
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Disease relevance of Lopac-S-106

  • The administration of GABAa antagonist gabazine enhances the occurrence of the epileptic seizures, slightly increases LMA but decreases myoclonia [1].
  • The effects of GABAb antagonist 5-aminovalleric acid (5-AVA) or GABAa antagonist gabazine administrations in the globus pallidus (GP) on locomotor and motor hyperactivity (LMA) and myoclonia expressions in the model of the rat submitted to 8 MPa of helium-oxygen breathing mixture were analyzed [1].

High impact information on Lopac-S-106

  • Using c-Fos as a marker of neuronal activation, we identified a possible role for the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN): when gabazine was microinjected directly into the TMN, it attenuated the sedative response to GABAergic agents [2].
  • Single-channel studies show that the gabazine-insensitive GABAA receptors have a lower unitary conductance (12 pS) than that estimated for synaptic receptors [3].
  • Application of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine mimicked the effect of IPSPs on MC maximal firing rate, and action potential height and slope, and this was reversed by the GABA(A) antagonist gabazine [4].
  • Both types of events were blocked by gabazine, but only outward currents were significantly affected by the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone, indicating that outward events originated in electrically coupled neurons [5].
  • Here, we examined whether synaptic inhibition entrains approximately 200 Hz network ripples by applying the GABA(A) receptor antagonist gabazine to CA1 minislices of mouse hippocampus [6].

Biological context of Lopac-S-106

  • Strychnine acting with an IC50 approximately = 33 nM, eliminated residual fast inhibition during selective GABA(A) receptor blockade with gabazine [7].
  • The remaining mPSCs had much slower kinetics (decay time = 19.6 ms) and were GABAergic [miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs)] as they were blocked by gabazine (3 microM) but not by strychnine (3-10 microM) [8].
  • Both rat and human LC neurons have a high density of binding sites for the pyridazinyl-GABA derivative [3H]SR 95531 (gabazine, a GABAA receptor antagonist for low affinity GABA recognition sites) [9].
  • Focal application of gabazine (25 muM) to cardiac vagal neurons in vitro did not change the frequency of firing in spontaneously active neurons or the resting membrane potential; however, picrotoxin (100 muM) significantly depolarized cardiac vagal neurons and increased their firing [10].
  • However, when the excitatory postsynaptic potential was pharmacologically isolated by adding 10 microM gabazine (GABA(A) receptor antagonist) to the perfusate, 1 microM galantamine potentiated the subthreshold excitatory postsynaptic potentials into action potentials [11].

Anatomical context of Lopac-S-106

  • Gabazine, a selective GABA(A) receptor antagonist, totally blocked evoked IPSCs in CA3 pyramidal cells [12].
  • Injections of 3H-gabazine in the L4-L5 region at P3 confirmed that gabazine binding was restricted to the lumbar spinal cord [13].
  • The effects of spinalization were consistent with gabazine facilitation of ventral root potentials observed in isolated neonatal spinal cord [13].
  • To investigate whether functional GABA(A)R-mediated inhibition does indeed undergo postnatal regulation at the level of dorsal horn circuits, we applied the selective GABA(A)R antagonist gabazine to the spinal cord in anesthetized rat pups [postnatal day (P) 3 or 21] while recording spike activity in single lumbar dorsal horn cells in vivo [14].
  • GABA-A receptor (bicuculline and Gabazine) and glycine receptor (strychnine) antagonists were applied directly to the cervical spinal cord (C3-C7), while bilateral phrenic nerve motor output was recorded [15].

Associations of Lopac-S-106 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Lopac-S-106

  • Furthermore, its inhibitory effect in the full disinhibition model of epileptiform activity (10 microM gabazine + 10 microM CGP55845) was occluded by the SK channel blocker apamin (300 nM-1 microM) which in its own right increased the duration and reduced the frequency of individual epileptiform bursts [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lopac-S-106

  • In the absence of TTX, excitatory PSCs evoked by focal electrical stimulation were isolated by application of gabazine and strychnine [8].
  • Intrathecal gabazine also produced an increase in the cutaneous evoked electromyography (EMG) response of the biceps femoris in P21 rates but lowering the response in neonates [13].
  • In contrast to gabazine, iontophoresis of the less potent GABA(A)-antagonist BIC often resulted in substantial broadening of frequency tuning for pure tones and an elimination of synchronized responses to AM tones, particularly with high ejecting currents [22].


  1. Pallidal administrations of gabazine and 5-AVA affect pressure-induced behavioral disorders in rats. Darbin, O., Risso, J.J., Weiss, M., Rostain, J.C. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. The sedative component of anesthesia is mediated by GABA(A) receptors in an endogenous sleep pathway. Nelson, L.E., Guo, T.Z., Lu, J., Saper, C.B., Franks, N.P., Maze, M. Nat. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Tonically activated GABAA receptors in hippocampal neurons are high-affinity, low-conductance sensors for extracellular GABA. Yeung, J.Y., Canning, K.J., Zhu, G., Pennefather, P., MacDonald, J.F., Orser, B.A. Mol. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Unitary IPSPs enhance hilar mossy cell gain in the rat hippocampus. Kerr, A.M., Capogna, M. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Propagation of postsynaptic currents and potentials via gap junctions in GABAergic networks of the rat hippocampus. Zsiros, V., Aradi, I., Maccaferri, G. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Induced sharp wave-ripple complexes in the absence of synaptic inhibition in mouse hippocampal slices. Nimmrich, V., Maier, N., Schmitz, D., Draguhn, A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Glycinergic inhibition in thalamus revealed by synaptic receptor blockade. Ghavanini, A.A., Mathers, D.A., Puil, E. Neuropharmacology (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Pre- and postsynaptic inhibitory actions of methionine-enkephalin on identified bulbospinal neurons of the rat RVL. Hayar, A., Guyenet, P.G. J. Neurophysiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Radioautographic evidence that the GABAA receptor antagonist SR 95531 is a substrate inhibitor of MAO-A in the rat and human locus coeruleus. Luque, J.M., Erat, R., Kettler, R., Cesura, A., Da Prada, M., Richards, J.G. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Multiple Types of GABAA Receptors Mediate Inhibition in Brain Stem Parasympathetic Cardiac Neurons In the Nucleus Ambiguus. Bouairi, E., Kamendi, H., Wang, X., Gorini, C., Mendelowitz, D. J. Neurophysiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Galantamine increases excitability of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Oh, M.M., Wu, W.W., Power, J.M., Disterhoft, J.F. Neuroscience (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Beta-alanine and taurine as endogenous agonists at glycine receptors in rat hippocampus in vitro. Mori, M., Gähwiler, B.H., Gerber, U. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. A postnatal switch in GABAergic control of spinal cutaneous reflexes. Hathway, G., Harrop, E., Baccei, M., Walker, S., Moss, A., Fitzgerald, M. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Functional GABA(A)-receptor-mediated inhibition in the neonatal dorsal horn. Bremner, L., Fitzgerald, M., Baccei, M. J. Neurophysiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. GABA, not glycine, mediates inhibition of latent respiratory motor pathways after spinal cord injury. Zimmer, M.B., Goshgarian, H.G. Exp. Neurol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Prototypical imidazoline-1 receptor ligand moxonidine activates alpha2-adrenoceptors in bulbospinal neurons of the RVL. Hayar, A., Guyenet, P.G. J. Neurophysiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. The rat ponto-medullary network responsible for paradoxical sleep onset and maintenance: a combined microinjection and functional neuroanatomical study. Boissard, R., Gervasoni, D., Schmidt, M.H., Barbagli, B., Fort, P., Luppi, P.H. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. The spinal GABAergic system is a strong modulator of burst frequency in the lamprey locomotor network. Schmitt, D.E., Hill, R.H., Grillner, S. J. Neurophysiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Direct excitation of mitral cells via activation of alpha1-noradrenergic receptors in rat olfactory bulb slices. Hayar, A., Heyward, P.M., Heinbockel, T., Shipley, M.T., Ennis, M. J. Neurophysiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Glutamatergic inputs in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus maintain sympathetic vasomotor tone in hypertension. Li, D.P., Pan, H.L. Hypertension (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. Activation of SK channels inhibits epileptiform bursting in hippocampal CA3 neurons. Lappin, S.C., Dale, T.J., Brown, J.T., Trezise, D.J., Davies, C.H. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Differential effects of iontophoretic in vivo application of the GABA(A)-antagonists bicuculline and gabazine in sensory cortex. Kurt, S., Crook, J.M., Ohl, F.W., Scheich, H., Schulze, H. Hear. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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