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Chemical Compound Review

Kynurenate     4-oxo-1H-quinoline-2- carboxylic acid

Synonyms: Transtorine, KYNA, Kynurensaeure, Lopac-K-3375, Kinurenic acid, ...
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Disease relevance of Kynurenate


Psychiatry related information on Kynurenate


High impact information on Kynurenate


Chemical compound and disease context of Kynurenate


Biological context of Kynurenate

  • 2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid, kynurenic acid, and other acidic amino acid antagonists reversibly decrease the amplitudes of spontaneously occurring synaptic potentials without affecting their frequency, indicating subsynaptic blockade [22].
  • The EPSP in these young embryos was unaffected by picrotoxin and strychnine, but responded to APV and kynurenate in a manner similar to that at later stages [23].
  • This component was followed by a kynurenic acid (KYNA)-sensitive postsynaptic response, most likely comprised of Ca(2+)-mediated action potentials occurring at the proximal pole of the Purkinje cell dendrites and evoked by climbing fiber inputs [24].
  • 4. A structural analog of XA, kynurenic acid (C10H6NO3), also activated gametogenesis but only at higher concentrations and with less effect [25].
  • NTS microinjection of kynurenate (ionotropic antagonist) inhibited both the cardiac and sympathetic baroreflex gains (16 +/- 5% and 59 +/- 11% of control, respectively) [26].

Anatomical context of Kynurenate


Associations of Kynurenate with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Kynurenate


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Kynurenate


  1. Kynurenate inhibition of cell excitation decreases stroke size and deficits. Germano, I.M., Pitts, L.H., Meldrum, B.S., Bartkowski, H.M., Simon, R.P. Ann. Neurol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Synaptic transmission between dorsal root ganglion and dorsal horn neurons in culture: antagonism of monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials and glutamate excitation by kynurenate. Jahr, C.E., Jessell, T.M. J. Neurosci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Cerebral synthesis and release of kynurenic acid: an endogenous antagonist of excitatory amino acid receptors. Swartz, K.J., During, M.J., Freese, A., Beal, M.F. J. Neurosci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Increased ratio of quinolinic acid to kynurenic acid in cerebrospinal fluid of D retrovirus-infected rhesus macaques: relationship to clinical and viral status. Heyes, M.P., Mefford, I.N., Quearry, B.J., Dedhia, M., Lackner, A. Ann. Neurol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Kynurenic acid triggers firm arrest of leukocytes to vascular endothelium under flow conditions. Barth, M.C., Ahluwalia, N., Anderson, T.J., Hardy, G.J., Sinha, S., Alvarez-Cardona, J.A., Pruitt, I.E., Rhee, E.P., Colvin, R.A., Gerszten, R.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
  6. Increased kynurenic acid levels in Huntington's disease. Connick, J.H., Stone, T.W., Carla, V., Moroni, F. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Role of ventrolateral periaqueductal gray neurons in the behavioral and cardiovascular responses to contextual conditioned fear and poststress recovery. Walker, P., Carrive, P. Neuroscience (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Decreased serum and red blood cell kynurenic acid levels in Alzheimer's disease. Hartai, Z., Juhász, A., Rimanóczy, A., Janáky, T., Donkó, T., Dux, L., Penke, B., Tóth, G.K., Janka, Z., Kálmán, J. Neurochem. Int. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Excitatory amino acids in rostral ventrolateral medulla support blood pressure during water deprivation in rats. Brooks, V.L., Freeman, K.L., Clow, K.A. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist kynurenic acid attenuates rewarding potential of morphine. Bespalov, A., Dumpis, M., Piotrovsky, L., Zvartau, E. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Elevations of endogenous kynurenic acid produce spatial working memory deficits. Chess, A.C., Simoni, M.K., Alling, T.E., Bucci, D.J. Schizophr. Bull (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Development and therapeutic potential of kynurenic acid and kynurenine derivatives for neuroprotection. Stone, T.W. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Dopamine inhibits mammalian photoreceptor Na+,K+-ATPase activity via a selective effect on the alpha3 isozyme. Shulman, L.M., Fox, D.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Two distinct inputs to an avian song nucleus activate different glutamate receptor subtypes on individual neurons. Mooney, R., Konishi, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Electrical stimulation of the prefrontal cortex increases cholecystokinin, glutamate, and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens: an in vivo microdialysis study in freely moving rats. You, Z.B., Tzschentke, T.M., Brodin, E., Wise, R.A. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Contribution of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus to binaural responses in the inferior colliculus of the rat: interaural time delays. Kidd, S.A., Kelly, J.B. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Kynurenine pathway measurements in Huntington's disease striatum: evidence for reduced formation of kynurenic acid. Beal, M.F., Matson, W.R., Swartz, K.J., Gamache, P.H., Bird, E.D. J. Neurochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Behavioral and autonomic correlates of the tactile evoked allodynia produced by spinal glycine inhibition: effects of modulatory receptor systems and excitatory amino acid antagonists. Yaksh, T.L. Pain (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Excitatory amino acid-mediated chemoreflex excitation of respiratory neurones in rostral ventrolateral medulla in rats. Sun, M.K., Reis, D.J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Kynurenine aminotransferase in the supratentorial dura mater of the rat: effect of stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion. Knyihár-Csillik, E., Chadaide, Z., Okuno, E., Krisztin-Péva, B., Toldi, J., Varga, C., Molnár, A., Csillik, B., Vécsei, L. Exp. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Indole-pyruvic acid treatment reduces damage in striatum but not in hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia in the rat. Zoli, M., Merlo Pich, E., Ferraguti, F., Biagini, G., Fuxe, K., Agnati, L.F. Neurochem. Int. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Pharmacology of the vestibular hair cell-afferent fiber synapse in the frog. Annoni, J.M., Cochran, S.L., Precht, W. J. Neurosci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. The development of sensorimotor synaptic connections in the lumbosacral cord of the chick embryo. Lee, M.T., Koebbe, M.J., O'Donovan, M.J. J. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Multimodal characterization of population responses evoked by applied electric field in vitro: extracellular potential, magnetic evoked field, transmembrane potential, and current-source density analysis. Lopez, L., Chan, C.Y., Okada, Y.C., Nicholson, C. J. Neurosci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Xanthurenic acid induces gametogenesis in Plasmodium, the malaria parasite. Garcia, G.E., Wirtz, R.A., Barr, J.R., Woolfitt, A., Rosenberg, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Disinhibition of the cardiac limb of the arterial baroreflex in rat: a role for metabotropic glutamate receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii. Simms, A.E., Paton, J.F., Pickering, A.E. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Involvement of excitatory amino acids in neurotransmission of inspiratory drive to spinal respiratory motoneurons. McCrimmon, D.R., Smith, J.C., Feldman, J.L. J. Neurosci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Inhibitory influence of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus on binaural responses in the rat's inferior colliculus. Li, L., Kelly, J.B. J. Neurosci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Localized excitatory synaptic interactions mediate the sustained depolarization of electrographic seizures in developing hippocampus. Swann, J.W., Smith, K.L., Brady, R.J. J. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Imaging of synaptically evoked intrinsic optical signals in hippocampal slices. MacVicar, B.A., Hochman, D. J. Neurosci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Modulation of the kynurenine pathway in search for new neuroprotective agents. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of (m-nitrobenzoyl)alanine, a potent inhibitor of kynurenine-3-hydroxylase. Pellicciari, R., Natalini, B., Costantino, G., Mahmoud, M.R., Mattoli, L., Sadeghpour, B.M., Moroni, F., Chiarugi, A., Carpenedo, R. J. Med. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Increased cerebrospinal fluid quinolinic acid, kynurenic acid, and L-kynurenine in acute septicemia. Heyes, M.P., Lackner, A. J. Neurochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Neostriatal and cortical quinolinate levels are increased in early grade Huntington's disease. Guidetti, P., Luthi-Carter, R.E., Augood, S.J., Schwarcz, R. Neurobiol. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Interaction of strychnine-insensitive glycine binding with MK-801 binding in brain synaptic membranes. Yoneda, Y., Ogita, K., Suzuki, T. J. Neurochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  35. Targeted deletion of the kynurenine aminotransferase ii gene reveals a critical role of endogenous kynurenic acid in the regulation of synaptic transmission via alpha7 nicotinic receptors in the hippocampus. Alkondon, M., Pereira, E.F., Yu, P., Arruda, E.Z., Almeida, L.E., Guidetti, P., Fawcett, W.P., Sapko, M.T., Randall, W.R., Schwarcz, R., Tagle, D.A., Albuquerque, E.X. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Effect of arylformamidase (kynurenine formamidase) gene inactivation in mice on enzymatic activity, kynurenine pathway metabolites and phenotype. Dobrovolsky, V.N., Bowyer, J.F., Pabarcus, M.K., Heflich, R.H., Williams, L.D., Doerge, D.R., Arvidsson, B., Bergquist, J., Casida, J.E. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat activates non-N-methyl-D-aspartate excitatory amino acid receptors and causes neurotoxicity. Magnuson, D.S., Knudsen, B.E., Geiger, J.D., Brownstone, R.M., Nath, A. Ann. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  38. Effects of excitatory amino acid transmitters on hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) release in vitro: implications in pituitary-adrenal regulation. Patchev, V.K., Karalis, K., Chrousos, G.P. Brain Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  39. Effects of COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors on the firing of rat midbrain dopaminergic neurons--possible involvement of endogenous kynurenic acid. Schwieler, L., Erhardt, S., Nilsson, L., Linderholm, K., Engberg, G. Synapse (2006) [Pubmed]
  40. Activation of locus coeruleus from nucleus paragigantocellularis: a new excitatory amino acid pathway in brain. Ennis, M., Aston-Jones, G. J. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  41. Rostral ventrolateral medulla : A source of sympathetic activation in rats subjected to long-term treatment with L-NAME. Bergamaschi, C.T., Campos, R.R., Lopes, O.U. Hypertension (1999) [Pubmed]
  42. Synthesis and biochemical evaluation of N-(4-phenylthiazol-2-yl)benzenesulfonamides as high-affinity inhibitors of kynurenine 3-hydroxylase. Röver, S., Cesura, A.M., Huguenin, P., Kettler, R., Szente, A. J. Med. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
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