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Chemical Compound Review

carbenoxolone     (2S,4aS,6aS,6bS,8aS,10S,12aS,1 4bR)-10-(3...

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Disease relevance of carbenoxolone


Psychiatry related information on carbenoxolone

  • This increase was associated with a comparable impairment in motor activity; however, the therapeutic index of combined treatment of antiepileptic drugs with carbenoxolone was more favourable than the combination with glycyrrhizin or saline [5].

High impact information on carbenoxolone


Chemical compound and disease context of carbenoxolone


Biological context of carbenoxolone


Anatomical context of carbenoxolone


Associations of carbenoxolone with other chemical compounds


Gene context of carbenoxolone


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of carbenoxolone

  • Blood flow, as measured by radioactive microspheres, was not changed by carbenoxolone treatment, but subsequent exposure to isotonic HC1 caused an abrupt rise in flow [29].
  • In two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover studies, administration of the 11beta-HSD inhibitor carbenoxolone (100 mg three times per day) improved verbal fluency (P < 0.01) after 4 weeks in 10 healthy elderly men (aged 55-75 y) and improved verbal memory (P < 0.01) after 6 weeks in 12 patients with type 2 diabetes (52-70 y) [30].
  • The influence of carbenoxolone on the synthesis of glycoproteins in the surface mucous cells and the production of new cells in the rat gastric mucosa was studied by means of a vascular perfusion system [21].
  • The sugar composition (determined by gas-liquid chromatography) of the gastric glycoproteins (isolated by centrifugation in CsCl), was not changed in carbenoxolone-treated rats [21].
  • Some studies suggest that carbenoxolone adds to the effect of hospitalisation and bed rest on ulcer healing [31].


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  2. Topical carbenoxolone for orofacial herpes simplex infections. Poswillo, D.E., Roberts, G.J. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Exceptional chemopreventive activity of low-dose dehydroepiandrosterone in the rat mammary gland. McCormick, D.L., Rao, K.V., Johnson, W.D., Bowman-Gram, T.A., Steele, V.E., Lubet, R.A., Kellof, G.J. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
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  5. Influence of carbenoxolone on the anticonvulsant efficacy of conventional antiepileptic drugs against audiogenic seizures in DBA/2 mice. Gareri, P., Condorelli, D., Belluardo, N., Gratteri, S., Ferreri, G., Donato Di Paola, E., De Sarro, A., De Sarro, G. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Pannexin 1 in erythrocytes: function without a gap. Locovei, S., Bao, L., Dahl, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Corticosterone metabolism and effects on angiotensin II receptors in vascular smooth muscle. Ullian, M.E., Walsh, L.G. Circ. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Neurotransmitter coupling through gap junctions in the retina. Vaney, D.I., Nelson, J.C., Pow, D.V. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. 11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in cultured hippocampal cells reactivates inert 11-dehydrocorticosterone, potentiating neurotoxicity. Rajan, V., Edwards, C.R., Seckl, J.R. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Carbenoxolone and mefloquine suppress tremor in the harmaline mouse model of essential tremor. Martin, F.C., Handforth, A. Mov. Disord. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of carbenoxolone and cimetidine on gastric mucin. Guslandi, M., Cambielli, M., Bierti, L., Tittobello, A. Clinical therapeutics. (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. The gap junction blockers carbenoxolone and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid antagonize cone-driven light responses in the mouse retina. Xia, Y., Nawy, S. Vis. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of carbenoxolone on the plasma renin activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Irony, I., Cutler, G.B. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. In vivo and in vitro effects of carbenoxolone on glucocorticoid receptor binding and glucocorticoid activity. Soro, A., Panarelli, M., Holloway, C.D., Fraser, R., Kenyon, C.J. Steroids (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Changes in the plasma clearance and protein binding of carbenoxolone with age, and their possible relationship with adverse drug effects. Hayes, M.J., Sprackling, M., Langman, M.J. Gut (1977) [Pubmed]
  16. Local modulation by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of glucocorticoid effects on the activity of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase in human chorion and placental trophoblast cells. Patel, F.A., Sun, K., Challis, J.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Carbenoxolone inhibits DNA synthesis and collagen gene expression in rat hepatic stellate cells in culture. Uyama, N., Shimahara, Y., Okuyama, H., Kawada, N., Kamo, S., Ikeda, K., Yamaoka, Y. J. Hepatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Carbenoxolone induces oxidative stress in liver mitochondria, which is responsible for transition pore opening. Salvi, M., Fiore, C., Battaglia, V., Palermo, M., Armanini, D., Toninello, A. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Calcium imaging reveals a network of intrinsically light-sensitive inner-retinal neurons. Sekaran, S., Foster, R.G., Lucas, R.J., Hankins, M.W. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Cloning of a cDNA for liver microsomal retinol dehydrogenase. A tissue-specific, short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase. Chai, X., Boerman, M.H., Zhai, Y., Napoli, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of carbenoxolone on the synthesis of glycoproteins and DNA in rat gastric epithelial cells. van Huis, G.A., Kramer, M.F. Gut (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure leads to offspring hyperglycaemia in the rat: studies with the 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor carbenoxolone. Lindsay, R.S., Lindsay, R.M., Waddell, B.J., Seckl, J.R. Diabetologia (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Reduced capacity for the reactivation of glucocorticoids in rheumatoid arthritis synovial cells: possible role of the sympathetic nervous system? Schmidt, M., Weidler, C., Naumann, H., Anders, S., Schölmerich, J., Straub, R.H. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Steroid dehydrogenase structures, mechanism of action, and disease. Duax, W.L., Ghosh, D., Pletnev, V. Vitam. Horm. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Carbenoxolone damages endothelium and enhances vasoconstrictor action in aortic rings. Ullian, M.E., Hazen-Martin, D.J., Walsh, L.G., Davda, R.K., Egan, B.M. Hypertension (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Early inflammatory responses in experimental cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis: effects of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inactivation. Young, M.J., Moussa, L., Dilley, R., Funder, J.W. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone stimulate Na,K-ATPase gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells. Muto, S., Nemoto, J., Ebata, S., Kawakami, K., Asano, Y. Kidney Int. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Stimulation of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in rat colon but not in kidney by low dietary NaCl intake. Nørregaard, R., Uhrenholt, T.R., Bistrup, C., Skøtt, O., Jensen, B.L. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Effects of carbenoxolone on gastric mucosal permeability and blood flow in the dog. Simons, M.A., Moody, F.G., Torma, M.J. Gastroenterology (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. 11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibition improves cognitive function in healthy elderly men and type 2 diabetics. Sandeep, T.C., Yau, J.L., MacLullich, A.M., Noble, J., Deary, I.J., Walker, B.R., Seckl, J.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Carbenoxolone: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in peptic ulcer disease. Pinder, R.M., Brogden, R.N., Sawyer, P.R., Speight, T.M., Spencer, R., Avery, G.S. Drugs (1976) [Pubmed]
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