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MeSH Review

Gap Junctions

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Disease relevance of Gap Junctions


Psychiatry related information on Gap Junctions


High impact information on Gap Junctions

  • Gap junction channels formed by alpha3 (Cx46) and alpha8 (Cx50) connexin provide pathways for communication between the fiber cells in the normal transparent lens [7].
  • The results show that the tail of the long splice form a of Dsc, but not its shorter splice form b, contains sufficient information to recruit desmoplakin and plakoglobin to connexon membrane paracrystals (gap junctions) and to form a novel kind of plaque at which cytokeratin IFs attach [8].
  • We have used sucrose gradient fractionation and chemical cross-linking to study the first step in gap junction assembly, oligomerization of Cx43 monomers into connexon channels [9].
  • Differences between liver gap junction protein and lens MIP 26 from rat: implications for tissue specificity of gap junctions [10].
  • All these synapses require the gap junction protein connexin36 (Cx36) for robust electrical coupling [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Gap Junctions


Biological context of Gap Junctions


Anatomical context of Gap Junctions


Associations of Gap Junctions with chemical compounds

  • Identification of a proline residue as a transduction element involved in voltage gating of gap junctions [26].
  • Vitamin E supplementation above the deficient plasma levels of these infants suppresses gap junction formation and clinically reduces the severity without altering the total incidence of ROP [27].
  • We found that neurobiotin (relative molecular mass, 286) passed easily through both types of gap junctions, but that biotin-X cadaverine (relative molecular mass, 442) passed through AII/bipolar cell gap junctions poorly compared to AII/AII gap junctions [28].
  • The gap junction blocker octanol attenuated the neuronal response, which suggests that the astrocytic-neuronal signaling is mediated through intercellular connections rather than synaptically [29].
  • NMDA receptors regulate developmental gap junction uncoupling via CREB signaling [30].

Gene context of Gap Junctions


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gap Junctions


  1. Mutations in the gene encoding gap junction protein beta-3 associated with autosomal dominant hearing impairment. Xia, J.H., Liu, C.Y., Tang, B.S., Pan, Q., Huang, L., Dai, H.P., Zhang, B.R., Xie, W., Hu, D.X., Zheng, D., Shi, X.L., Wang, D.A., Xia, K., Yu, K.P., Liao, X.D., Feng, Y., Yang, Y.F., Xiao, J.Y., Xie, D.H., Huang, J.Z. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Vitamin-A-induced mucous metaplasia. An in vitro system for modulating tight and gap junction differentiation. Elias, P.M., Friend, D.S. J. Cell Biol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Isolation and purification of gap junction channels. Stauffer, K.A., Kumar, N.M., Gilula, N.B., Unwin, N. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. ATP- and gap junction-dependent intercellular calcium signaling in osteoblastic cells. Jorgensen, N.R., Geist, S.T., Civitelli, R., Steinberg, T.H. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of gap junction channels in communication-incompetent cells after stable transfection with cDNA encoding connexin 32. Eghbali, B., Kessler, J.A., Spray, D.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Blockade of brain stem gap junctions increases phrenic burst frequency and reduces phrenic burst synchronization in adult rat. Solomon, I.C., Chon, K.H., Rodriguez, M.N. J. Neurophysiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Disruption of alpha3 connexin gene leads to proteolysis and cataractogenesis in mice. Gong, X., Li, E., Klier, G., Huang, Q., Wu, Y., Lei, H., Kumar, N.M., Horwitz, J., Gilula, N.B. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Contributions of cytoplasmic domains of desmosomal cadherins to desmosome assembly and intermediate filament anchorage. Troyanovsky, S.M., Eshkind, L.G., Troyanovsky, R.B., Leube, R.E., Franke, W.W. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Multisubunit assembly of an integral plasma membrane channel protein, gap junction connexin43, occurs after exit from the ER. Musil, L.S., Goodenough, D.A. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Differences between liver gap junction protein and lens MIP 26 from rat: implications for tissue specificity of gap junctions. Nicholson, B.J., Takemoto, L.J., Hunkapiller, M.W., Hood, L.E., Revel, J.P. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Electrical synapses in the mammalian brain. Connors, B.W., Long, M.A. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in combination with its soluble receptor (CNTFRalpha) increases connexin43 expression and suppresses growth of C6 glioma cells. Ozog, M.A., Bechberger, J.F., Naus, C.C. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Connexin 32 dominant-negative mutant transgenic rats are resistant to hepatic damage by chemicals. Asamoto, M., Hokaiwado, N., Murasaki, T., Shirai, T. Hepatology (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Prostaglandins change cell shape and increase intercellular gap junctions in osteoblasts cultured from rat fetal calvaria. Shen, V., Rifas, L., Kohler, G., Peck, W.A. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Closure of gap junction channels by arylaminobenzoates. Srinivas, M., Spray, D.C. Mol. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Localized injury in cardiomyocyte network: a new experimental model of ischemia-reperfusion arrhythmias. Arutunyan, A., Webster, D.R., Swift, L.M., Sarvazyan, N. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular cloning and functional expression of human connexin37, an endothelial cell gap junction protein. Reed, K.E., Westphale, E.M., Larson, D.M., Wang, H.Z., Veenstra, R.D., Beyer, E.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Severe acute pancreatitis and reduced acinar cell apoptosis in the exocrine pancreas of mice deficient for the Cx32 gene. Frossard, J.L., Rubbia-Brandt, L., Wallig, M.A., Benathan, M., Ott, T., Morel, P., Hadengue, A., Suter, S., Willecke, K., Chanson, M. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. The sleep-inducing lipid oleamide deconvolutes gap junction communication and calcium wave transmission in glial cells. Guan, X., Cravatt, B.F., Ehring, G.R., Hall, J.E., Boger, D.L., Lerner, R.A., Gilula, N.B. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Transfected connexin45 alters gap junction permeability in cells expressing endogenous connexin43. Koval, M., Geist, S.T., Westphale, E.M., Kemendy, A.E., Civitelli, R., Beyer, E.C., Steinberg, T.H. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Ser364 of connexin43 and the upregulation of gap junction assembly by cAMP. TenBroek, E.M., Lampe, P.D., Solan, J.L., Reynhout, J.K., Johnson, R.G. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Inhibition by anandamide of gap junctions and intercellular calcium signalling in striatal astrocytes. Venance, L., Piomelli, D., Glowinski, J., Giaume, C. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Deafness and renal tubular acidosis in mice lacking the K-Cl co-transporter Kcc4. Boettger, T., Hübner, C.A., Maier, H., Rust, M.B., Beck, F.X., Jentsch, T.J. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Gap junction development is correlated with insulin content in the pancreatic B cell. Meda, P., Halban, P., Perrelet, A., Renold, A.E., Orci, L. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  25. Wnt-1 regulation of connexin43 in cardiac myocytes. Ai, Z., Fischer, A., Spray, D.C., Brown, A.M., Fishman, G.I. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Identification of a proline residue as a transduction element involved in voltage gating of gap junctions. Suchyna, T.M., Xu, L.X., Gao, F., Fourtner, C.R., Nicholson, B.J. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Vitamin E protects against retinopathy of prematurity through action on spindle cells. Kretzer, F.L., Mehta, R.S., Johnson, A.T., Hunter, D.G., Brown, E.S., Hittner, H.M. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. Differential properties of two gap junctional pathways made by AII amacrine cells. Mills, S.L., Massey, S.C. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Direct signaling from astrocytes to neurons in cultures of mammalian brain cells. Nedergaard, M. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. NMDA receptors regulate developmental gap junction uncoupling via CREB signaling. Arumugam, H., Liu, X., Colombo, P.J., Corriveau, R.A., Belousov, A.B. Nat. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Connexin43 deficiency causes delayed ossification, craniofacial abnormalities, and osteoblast dysfunction. Lecanda, F., Warlow, P.M., Sheikh, S., Furlan, F., Steinberg, T.H., Civitelli, R. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Targeted ablation of connexin50 in mice results in microphthalmia and zonular pulverulent cataracts. White, T.W., Goodenough, D.A., Paul, D.L. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Transcriptional downregulation of gap-junction proteins blocks junctional communication in human mammary tumor cell lines. Lee, S.W., Tomasetto, C., Paul, D., Keyomarsi, K., Sager, R. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Sequence and tissue distribution of a second protein of hepatic gap junctions, Cx26, as deduced from its cDNA. Zhang, J.T., Nicholson, B.J. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  35. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 5 controls the proliferation and differentiation of mammary alveolar epithelium. Miyoshi, K., Shillingford, J.M., Smith, G.H., Grimm, S.L., Wagner, K.U., Oka, T., Rosen, J.M., Robinson, G.W., Hennighausen, L. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Stable fetal cardiomyocyte grafts in the hearts of dystrophic mice and dogs. Koh, G.Y., Soonpaa, M.H., Klug, M.G., Pride, H.P., Cooper, B.J., Zipes, D.P., Field, L.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. Gap junction-mediated cell-to-cell communication in bovine and human adrenal cells. A process whereby cells increase their responsiveness to physiological corticotropin concentrations. Munari-Silem, Y., Lebrethon, M.C., Morand, I., Rousset, B., Saez, J.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  38. Identification of a 70,000-D protein in lens membrane junctional domains. Kistler, J., Kirkland, B., Bullivant, S. J. Cell Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  39. Immunocytochemical localization of the main intrinsic polypeptide (MIP) in ultrathin frozen sections of rat lens. Fitzgerald, P.G., Bok, D., Horwitz, J. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  40. Differential regulation of multiple gap junction transcripts and proteins during rat liver regeneration. Kren, B.T., Kumar, N.M., Wang, S.Q., Gilula, N.B., Steer, C.J. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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