The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Skatole     3-methyl-1H-indole

Synonyms: Scatole, Skatol, b-Methylindole, PubChem7505, SureCN5396, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Skatole


High impact information on Skatole


Chemical compound and disease context of Skatole


Biological context of Skatole

  • The aim of this study was to measure the expression pattern of CYP2E1 mRNA in various tissues of the pig, to identify genetic polymorphisms, and to evaluate the functional relevance of polymorphic sites with respect to the skatole level in fat [7].
  • Effects of butyrate on apoptosis in the pig colon and its consequences for skatole formation and tissue accumulation [9].
  • Responses to the oviposition cue skatole (3-methylindole), presented individually and in combination with the plant-derived and synthetic oviposition pheromone, were also studied [10].
  • Detection of quantitative trait loci for androstenone, skatole and boar taint in a cross between Large White and Meishan pigs [11].
  • After killing barrows at the end of the feeding period, fat tissue for skatole measurement and colon tissue for histological quantification of mitosis and apoptosis were obtained [9].

Anatomical context of Skatole


Associations of Skatole with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Skatole

  • The characterization of the SULT1A1 gene and its variants should have an important impact on the efforts to develop genetic markers to select for low skatole in pigs [19].
  • However, in a population of commercial pigs scored for backfat skatole levels, there was evidence of association between a SNP in the CYP2E1 promoter and skatole deposition, although there was no significant association between this SNP and skatole levels in the experimental cross [20].
  • The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize CYP2A6 from pig liver, as well as identify genetic polymorphisms in the CYP2A6 gene, and examine the association between these polymorphisms and skatole level [21].
  • There was no effect on skatole levels in backfat (0.141 vs. 0.150 microgram/g) [22].
  • Levels of skatole were not associated with the levels of sex steroids, T(3) and IGF-1 [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Skatole

  • Several skatole metabolites were detected by HPLC, including 6-hydroxyskatole (pro-MII), 3-hydroxy-3-methyloxyindole (MIII), and five others not identified in this study [24].
  • SOP and skatole combinations showed additive effects in laboratory assays, but were not tested in field bioassays [10].
  • Furthermore, fecal excretion of skatole (inulin = 9.07 vs. control = 18.93 mg/kg DMI) was decreased (P < 0.05) by the inulin supplementation compared with the control group [25].
  • Multivariate analysis revealed that gonadal hormones and reproductive organ size influenced prevalence of boar taint, accounting for 30% of the variation in skatole levels in fat and for 37% of the variation in androstenone levels in fat [26].


  1. Isolation and characteristics of a skatole-producing Lactobacillus sp. from the bovine rumen. Yokoyama, M.T., Carlson, J.R., Holdeman, L.V. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Fecal skatole and indole and breath methane and hydrogen in patients with large bowel polyps or cancer. Karlin, D.A., Mastromarino, A.J., Jones, R.D., Stroehlein, J.R., Lorentz, O. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Genotoxicity of naturally occurring indole compounds: correlation between covalent DNA binding and other genotoxicity tests. Reddy, M.V., Storer, R.D., Laws, G.M., Armstrong, M.J., Barnum, J.E., Gara, J.P., McKnight, C.G., Skopek, T.R., Sina, J.F., DeLuca, J.G., Galloway, S.M. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Some effects of indole on the interaction of amino acids with tryptophanase. Kazarinoff, M.N., Snell, E.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Transient inactivation of almond mandelonitrile lyase by 3-methyleneoxindole: a photooxidation product of the natural plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid. Petrounia, I.P., Goldberg, J., Brush, E.J. Biochemistry (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Prooxidant activity and cytotoxic effects of indole-3-acetic acid derivative radicals. Tafazoli, S., O'brien, P.J. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Functional polymorphism in porcine CYP2E1 gene: Its association with skatole levels. Lin, Z., Lou, Y., Squires, E.J. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of mixed-function oxidase in 3-methylindole-induced acute pulmonary edema in goats. Bray, T.M., Carlson, J.R. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of butyrate on apoptosis in the pig colon and its consequences for skatole formation and tissue accumulation. Claus, R., Lösel, D., Lacorn, M., Mentschel, J., Schenkel, H. J. Anim. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Laboratory and field responses of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, to plant-derived Culex spp. oviposition pheromone and the oviposition cue skatole. Olagbemiro, T.O., Birkett, M.A., Mordue Luntz, A.J., Pickett, J.A. J. Chem. Ecol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Detection of quantitative trait loci for androstenone, skatole and boar taint in a cross between Large White and Meishan pigs. Lee, G.J., Archibald, A.L., Law, A.S., Lloyd, S., Wood, J., Haley, C.S. Anim. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of 3-methylindole (skatole) and indole in adipose tissue of pigs. Dehnhard, M., Claus, R., Hillenbrand, M., Herzog, A. J. Chromatogr. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Influence of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on circulating concentrations of luteinizing hormone and testosterone and tissue concentrations of compounds associated with boar taint. Xue, J.L., Dial, G.D., Bartsh, S., Kerkaert, B., Squires, E.J., Marsh, W.E., Ferre, G. J. Anim. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Cytochrome P450IIE1 (CYP2E1) is induced by skatole and this induction is blocked by androstenone in isolated pig hepatocytes. Doran, E., Whittington, F.W., Wood, J.D., McGivan, J.D. Chem. Biol. Interact. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Social effects and boar taint: significance for production of slaughter boars (Sus scrofa). Giersing, M., Lundström, K., Andersson, A. J. Anim. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Rapid determination of skatole and indole in pig back fat by normal-phase liquid chromatography. Garcia Regueiro, J.A., Rius, M.A. Journal of chromatography. A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Rapid and accurate high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of 3-methylindole (skatole) in faeces of various species. Dehnhard, M., Bernal-Barragan, H., Claus, R. J. Chromatogr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Sensory characteristics and carcass traits of boars, barrows, and gilts fed high- or adequate-protein diets and slaughtered at 100 or 110 kilograms. Nold, R.A., Romans, J.R., Costello, W.J., Henson, J.A., Libal, G.W. J. Anim. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of porcine SULT1A1 gene and its variant: a single mutation SULT1A1 causes a significant decrease in sulfation activity. Lin, Z., Lou, Y., Squires, J.E. Mamm. Genome (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Cloning and mapping of the porcine cytochrome-p450 2E1 gene and its association with skatole levels in the domestic pig. Skinner, T.M., Doran, E., McGivan, J.D., Haley, C.S., Archibald, A.L. Anim. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Molecular cloning, expression and functional characterization of the cytochrome P450 2A6 gene in pig liver. Lin, Z., Lou, Y., Squires, E.J. Anim. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of treating young boars with a GnRH depot formulation on endocrine functions, testis size, boar taint, carcass composition and muscular structure. Schneider, F., Falkenberg, H., Kuhn, G., Nürnberg, K., Rehfeldt, C., Kanitz, W. Anim. Reprod. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Age-related variation of plasma concentrations of skatole, androstenone, testosterone, oestradiol-17 beta, oestrone sulphate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, triiodothyronine and IGF-1 in six entire male pigs. Zamaratskaia, G., Babol, J., Madej, A., Squires, E.J., Lundström, K. Reprod. Domest. Anim. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Hepatic metabolism of skatole in pigs by cytochrome P4502E1. Babol, J., Squires, E.J., Lundström, K. J. Anim. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Excretion of major odor-causing and acidifying compounds in response to dietary supplementation of chicory inulin in growing pigs. Rideout, T.C., Fan, M.Z., Cant, J.P., Wagner-Riddle, C., Stonehouse, P. J. Anim. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Boar taint is related to endocrine and anatomical changes at puberty but not to aggressive behaviour in entire male pigs. Zamaratskaia, G., Rydhmer, L., Chen, G., Madej, A., Andersson, H.K., Lundström, K. Reprod. Domest. Anim. (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities