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MeSH Review

Bulbourethral Glands

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Disease relevance of Bulbourethral Glands


High impact information on Bulbourethral Glands


Biological context of Bulbourethral Glands


Anatomical context of Bulbourethral Glands


Associations of Bulbourethral Glands with chemical compounds


Gene context of Bulbourethral Glands

  • TGF-beta isoforms and TGF-beta receptor (TbetaR-II) were localized immunocytochemically in sections of Cowper's glands [20].
  • A panel of immunoperoxidase and mucin stains performed on 10 Cowper's glands showed negative immunoreactivity for prostatic-specific antigen, prostatic alkaline phosphatase, S-100 protein, and carcinoembryonic antigen [21].
  • Similarly in the bulbourethral gland, only OTR immunoreactivity could be detected [11].
  • Sections containing Cowper's glands were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, mucicarmine, periodic acid-Schiff's-digest (PAS-D), and antibodies directed at high-molecular-weight cytokeratin (HMWCK), prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin, and muscle-specific actin [22].
  • Acini in nine of the 10 Cowper's glands were negative for high-molecular-weight cytokeratin K-903 (34beta E12) [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Bulbourethral Glands

  • Mucin-producing Cowper's glands, which are situated in the urogenital diaphragm, can be sampled inadvertently by transurethral resection of the prostate and rarely by needle biopsy [21].


  1. Altered expression of transforming growth factor betas during urethral and bulbourethral gland tumor progression in transgenic mice carrying the androgen-responsive C3(1) 5' flanking region fused to SV40 large T antigen. Shibata, M.A., Jorcyk, C.L., Devor, D.E., Yoshidome, K., Rulong, S., Resau, J., Roche, N., Roberts, A.B., Ward, J.M., Green, J.E. Carcinogenesis (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Pubertal changes in the secretion of gonadotropic hormones, testicular gonadotropic receptors and testicular function in the ram. Yarney, T.A., Sanford, L.M. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. The effect of testosterone and an anti-oestrogen on hypertrophy of bulbourethral glands of wethers grazing oestrogenic pastures. Chamley, W.A., Findlay, J.K., Nairn, M.E. Aust. Vet. J. (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. 5 alpha-reductase activity in developing urogenital tracts of fetal and neonatal male mice. Tsuji, M., Shima, H., Terada, N., Cunha, G.R. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Androgens lower prostaglandin E2 levels in neonatal mouse bulbourethral gland in in vitro cultures. Little, J.S., Best, K.L., Goode, R.L., Toomey, R.E., Neubauer, B.L. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. A new model system for studying androgen-induced growth and morphogenesis in vitro: the bulbourethral gland. Cooke, P.S., Young, P.F., Cunha, G.R. Endocrinology (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Determination of seasonality in southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) by analysis of fecal androgens. Hamilton, R.A., Stanton, P.G., O'Donnell, L., Steele, V.R., Taggart, D.A., Temple-Smith, P.D. Biol. Reprod. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Differences in reproductive pattern between wild and domestic rams are not associated with inter-specific annual variations in plasma prolactin and melatonin concentrations. Santiago-Moreno, J., Gómez-Brunet, A., González-Bulnes, A., Toledano-Díaz, A., Malpaux, B., López-Sebastián, A. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Lipase activity in stallion seminal plasma and the effect of lipase on stallion spermatozoa during storage at 5 degrees C. Carver, D.A., Ball, B.A. Theriogenology (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Immunohistochemical study of phospholipase A2 in bovine prostate. Rönkkö, S. Prostate (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Oxytocin and oxytocin receptor expression in reproductive tissues of the male marmoset monkey. Einspanier, A., Ivell, R. Biol. Reprod. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Identification of cytoplasmic estrogen receptors in the accessory sex organs of the rabbit and their comparison to the cytoplasmic estrogen receptor in the epididymis. Danzo, B.J., Eller, B.C., Hendry, W.J. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Neonatal exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) alters male reproductive-tract development. Kim, H.S., Kim, T.S., Shin, J.H., Moon, H.J., Kang, I.H., Kim, I.Y., Oh, J.Y., Han, S.Y. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Development in calves and heifers after hypophysial stalk transection or hypophysectomy. Anderson, L.L. Am. J. Physiol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. The effects of estradiol, tamoxifen, and testosterone on the weights and histology of the epididymis and accessory sex organs of sexually immature rabbits. Orgebin-Crist, M.C., Eller, B.C., Danzo, B.J. Endocrinology (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of testosterone and cortisol administration on the reproductive tract of male Antechinus stuartii (Marsupialia). McAllan, B.M. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Metabolism of oestrone and oestradiol-17beta to conjugated steroids by the accessory sex glands of the male pig. Raeside, J.I., Christie, H.L., Renaud, R.L. J. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Social effects and boar taint: significance for production of slaughter boars (Sus scrofa). Giersing, M., Lundström, K., Andersson, A. J. Anim. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Reproductive biology of the male leaf-nosed bat, Macrotus waterhousii in Southwestern United States. Krutzsch, P.H., Watson, R.H., Lox, C.D. Anat. Rec. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Transforming growth factor-beta 2 heterozygous mutant mice exhibit Cowper's gland hyperplasia and cystic dilations of the gland ducts (Cowper's syringoceles). Dünker, N., Aumüller, G. J. Anat. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Distinguishing Cowper's glands from neoplastic and pseudoneoplastic lesions of prostate: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies. Saboorian, M.H., Huffman, H., Ashfaq, R., Ayala, A.G., Ro, J.Y. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Diagnosis of Cowper's glands on prostate needle biopsy. Cina, S.J., Silberman, M.A., Kahane, H., Epstein, J.I. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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