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Chemical Compound Review

Fouramine     4-methylbenzene-1,3-diamine

Synonyms: Toluenediamine, Developer B, Developer T, Fouramine J, Fourrine M, ...
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Disease relevance of NSC1494


High impact information on NSC1494


Chemical compound and disease context of NSC1494


Biological context of NSC1494


Anatomical context of NSC1494


Associations of NSC1494 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of NSC1494

  • Of the four isomers only 2,4-diaminotoluene is an established carcinogen and this is compatible with the present observations that it is the only isomer that stimulates its own activation through CYP1A induction, is metabolically converted to genotoxic intermediates, and binds to the Ah receptor [23].
  • The synthetic conjugate of the genotoxic compound 2,4 diaminotoluene (2,4 DAT) with gelatin (2,4 DAT-GEL) was employed to elicit specific antibodies directed against a restricted class of aromatic diamines [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NSC1494


  1. Carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity of 2,4-toluenediamine in F344 rats. Cardy, R.H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. 2,7-Diamino-3,8-dimethylphenazine as the major mutagenic product from the reaction of 2,4-diaminotoluene with hydrogen peroxide. Watanabe, T., Ono, M., Hirayama, T., Fukui, S. Mutat. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Locus specificity of mutagenicity of 2,4-diaminotoluene in both L5178Y mouse lymphoma and AT3-2 Chinese hamster ovary cells. Coppinger, W.J., Brennan, S.A., Carver, J.H., Thompson, E.D. Mutat. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. 2,4-Diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT)-induced DNA damage, DNA repair and micronucleus formation in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Séverin, I., Jondeau, A., Dahbi, L., Chagnon, M.C. Toxicology (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Carcinomas of the liver in female mice fed toluene-2,4-diamine. Reuber, M.D. Gann = Gan. (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Evaluation of the in vivo genotoxicity of the structural analogues 2,6-diaminotoluene and 2,4-diaminotoluene using the rat micronucleus test and rat liver UDS assay. George, E., Westmoreland, C. Carcinogenesis (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Urinary excretion of free toluenediamines in a patient with polyurethane-covered breast implants. Chan, S.C., Birdsell, D.C., Gradeen, C.Y. Clin. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Covalent binding to DNA and mutagenicity of 2,4-diaminotoluene metabolites produced by isolated hepatocytes and 9000 g supernatant from Fischer 344 rats. Furlong, B.B., Weaver, R.P., Goldstein, J.A. Carcinogenesis (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. N-acetylation as a route of 2,4-toluenediamine metabolism by hamster liver cytosol. Glinsukon, T., Benjamin, T., Grantham, P.H., Lewis, N.L., Weisburger, E.K. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  10. Hydrolytic stability of toluene diisocyanate and polymeric methylenediphenyl diisocyanate based polyureas under environmental conditions. Sendijarevic, V., Sendijarevic, A., Sendijarevic, I., Bailey, R.E., Pemberton, D., Reimann, K.A. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Mutagenicity and irreversible binding of the hepatocarcinogen, 2,4-diaminotoluene. Aune, T., Nelson, S.D., Dybing, E. Chem. Biol. Interact. (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. Determination of toluenediamine isomers by capillary gas chromatography and chemical ionization mass spectrometry with special reference to the biological monitoring of 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate. Skarping, G., Dalene, M., Lind, P. Journal of chromatography. A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Assessment of DNA adducts and the frequency of 6-thioguanine resistant T-lymphocytes in F344 rats fed 2,4-toluenediamine or implanted with a toluenediisocyanate-containing polyester polyurethane foam. Delclos, K.B., Blaydes, B., Heflich, R.H., Smith, B.A. Mutat. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Measurement of 2,4-toluenediamine in urine and serum samples from women with Même or Replicon breast implants. Hester, T.R., Ford, N.F., Gale, P.J., Hammett, J.L., Raymond, R., Turnbull, D., Frankos, V.H., Cohen, M.B. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis with fluorescence detection of ethyl centralite and 2,4- dinitrotoluene in gunshot residues after derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate. Meng, H.H., Caddy, B. J. Forensic Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Reproductive toxicity of 2,4-toluenediamine in the rat. 3. Effects on androgen-binding protein levels, selected seminiferous tubule characteristics, and spermatogenesis. Varma, S.K., Bloch, E., Gondos, B., Rossi, V., Gunsalus, G.L., Thysen, B. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. 32P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducts from Fischer-344 rats administered 2,4-diaminotoluene. La, D.K., Froines, J.R. Chem. Biol. Interact. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Correlation of bacterial mutagenicity and hamster cell transformation with tumorigenicity induced by 2,4-toluenediamine. Pienta, R.J., Shah, M.J., Lebherz, W.B., Andrews, A.W. Cancer Lett. (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. Toxicity and biodegradation of diamines. Kim, M.N., Jang, J.C., Lee, I.M., Lee, H.S., Yoon, J.S. Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. High-performance liquid chromatography of 2,6- and 2,4-diaminotoluene, and its application to the determination of 2,4-diaminotoluene in urine and plasma. Unger, P.D., Friedman, M.A. J. Chromatogr. (1979) [Pubmed]
  21. Acute and long-term effects of nine chemicals on the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Holcombe, G.W., Benoit, D.A., Hammermeister, D.E., Leonard, E.N., Johnson, R.D. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to toluene diisocyanate: measurement of toluenediamine in hydrolysed urine and plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Persson, P., Dalene, M., Skarping, G., Adamsson, M., Hagmar, L. British journal of industrial medicine. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Interaction with the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor, CYP1A induction, and mutagenicity of a series of diaminotoluenes: implications for their carcinogenicity. Cheung, Y.L., Snelling, J., Mohammed, N.N., Gray, T.J., Ioannides, C. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against DNA single ring diamines adducts. Marini, S., Citro, G., Di Cesare, S., Zito, R., Giardina, B. Hybridoma (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Activation of 2,4-diaminotoluene to proximate carcinogens in vitro, and assay of DNA adducts. Citro, G., Galati, R., Verdina, A., Marini, S., Zito, R., Giardina, B. Xenobiotica (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. A diffusive sampler for personal monitoring of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposure; Part I: Design of the dosimeter. Rando, R.J., Hammad, Y.Y., Chang, S.N. American Industrial Hygiene Association journal. (1989) [Pubmed]
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