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Chemical Compound Review

Aldrithiol-4     4-pyridin-4- yldisulfanylpyridine

Synonyms: Aldrithiol 4, CPD-9046, AG-J-11463, CHEMBL1232076, CHEBI:41814, ...
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Disease relevance of Aldrithiol 4


High impact information on Aldrithiol 4

  • Km(app) values obtained in crude extracts of male or female rat liver and post-benzamidine-purified aldehyde oxidase differed substantially from each other but could be interconverted by chemical reduction with dithiothreitol or oxidation with 4,4'-dithiodipyridine [5].
  • The RDSs, 2,2'-DTDP, 4,4'-dithiodipyridine and SPDP displaced [3H]ryanodine binding to the Ca2+-receptor complex at IC50 values of 7.5 +/- 0.2, 1.5 +/- 0.1, and 15.4 +/- 0.1 microM, respectively [6].
  • The rates of thioester hydrolysis were measured using assay mixtures containing the thiol reagent 4,4'-dithiodipyridine at pH 7 [7].
  • However, results of competitive binding experiments with the sulfhydryl reagent 4,4'-dithiodipyridine identified Cys-292 as the major site of alkylation and Cys-160 as the minor site of alkylation by BrNAP in cytochrome P-450c [8].
  • Time courses of the reaction were measured at pH 8.0, where the change in O2 saturation of hemoglobin by the 4,4'-dithiodipyridine reaction is negligible, and they were analyzed by the curve-fitting procedure [9].

Biological context of Aldrithiol 4


Anatomical context of Aldrithiol 4

  • In contrast, the lipid soluble oxidative agent 4,4'-dithiodipyridine (4-PDS) (1 mM) appeared in inside-out experiments less potent than DTNB and thimerosal at inhibiting the K(Ca2+) channel activity, suggesting that the critical SH groups involved in channel gating are localized at the inner face of the cell membrane [13].
  • 1. Brush border membrane vesicles from rabbit small intestine were found to contain 46 nmol SH groups/mg protein, 52% of which could react with 4,4'-dithiodipyridine, a membrane permeating probe [14].

Associations of Aldrithiol 4 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Aldrithiol 4


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Aldrithiol 4


  1. Sulfhydryl redox state affects susceptibility to ischemia and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release in rat heart. Implications for ischemic preconditioning. Zucchi, R., Yu, G., Galbani, P., Mariani, M., Ronca, G., Ronca-Testoni, S. Circ. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Sulfhydryl modification by 4,4'-dithiodipyridine induces calcium mobilization in human osteoblast-like cells. Kuo, S.Y., Ho, C.M., Chen, W.C., Jan, C.R. Arch. Toxicol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Crystalline enzyme kinetics: activity of the Streptomyces R61 D-alanyl-D-alanine peptidase. Kelly, J.A., Waley, S.G., Adam, M., Frère, J.M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. The reactions of Escherichia coli citrate synthase with the sulfhydryl reagents 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and 4,4'-dithiodipyridine. Talgoy, M.M., Bell, A.W., Duckworth, H.W. Can. J. Biochem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  5. cDNA cloning, sequencing, and characterization of male and female rat liver aldehyde oxidase (rAOX1). Differences in redox status may distinguish male and female forms of hepatic APX. Wright, R.M., Clayton, D.A., Riley, M.G., McManaman, J.L., Repine, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Reactive disulfides trigger Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum via an oxidation reaction. Zaidi, N.F., Lagenaur, C.F., Abramson, J.J., Pessah, I., Salama, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Human complement proteins D, C2, and B. Active site mapping with peptide thioester substrates. Kam, C.M., McRae, B.J., Harper, J.W., Niemann, M.A., Volanakis, J.E., Powers, J.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Chemical modification and inactivation of rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450c by 2-bromo-4'-nitroacetophenone. Parkinson, A., Ryan, D.E., Thomas, P.E., Jerina, D.M., Sayer, J.M., van Bladeren, P.J., Haniu, M., Shively, J.E., Levin, W. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. The structure of partially oxygenated hemoglobin. A highly reactive intermediate toward a sulfhydryl titrant. Makino, N., Sugita, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Biphasic modulation of ryanodine receptors by sulfhydryl oxidation in rat ventricular myocytes. Xie, H., Zhu, P.H. Biophys. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of ATP-sensitive potassium channels functionally expressed in pituitary GH3 cells. Wu, S.N., Li, H.F., Chiang, H.T. J. Membr. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Essential sulfhydryl groups in diamine oxidase from Euphorbia characias latex. Floris, G., Giartosio, A., Rinaldi, A. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of thiol-modifying agents on a K(Ca2+) channel of intermediate conductance in bovine aortic endothelial cells. Cai, S., Sauvé, R. J. Membr. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Distribution of sulfhydryl groups in intestinal brush border membranes. Localization of side-chains essential for glucose transport and phlorizin binding. Klip, A., Grinstein, S., Semenza, G. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Determination of dissociation constants for enzyme-reactant complexes for NAD-malic enzyme by modulation of the thiol inactivation rate. Kiick, D.M., Allen, B.L., Rao, J.G., Harris, B.G., Cook, P.F. Biochemistry (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Mechanism of inhibitory actions of oxidizing agents on calcium-activated potassium current in cultured pigment epithelial cells of the human retina. Sheu, S.J., Wu, S.N. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Analysis of the conformation and stability of Escherichia coli derived recombinant human interleukin 4 by circular dichroism. Windsor, W.T., Syto, R., Le, H.V., Trotta, P.P. Biochemistry (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Structure and electrochemistry of 4,4'-dithiodipyridine self-assembled monolayers in comparison with 4-mercaptopyridine self-assembled monolayers on Au(111). Zhou, W., Baunach, T., Ivanova, V., Kolb, D.M. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Reaction between sheep liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and various thiol-modifying reagents. Loomes, K.M., Kitson, T.M. Biochem. J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Preparation of the bifunctional enzyme ribonuclease-deoxyribonuclease by cross-linkage. Wang, D. Biochemistry (1979) [Pubmed]
  21. Spectrophotometric assay for vertebrate collagenase. Weingarten, H., Feder, J. Anal. Biochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection of ferro- and ferricytochrome c at a chemically modified gold electrode. Schlager, J.W., Baldwin, R.P. J. Chromatogr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Homocysteine and other thiols determined in plasma by HPLC and thiol-specific postcolumn derivatization. Andersson, A., Isaksson, A., Brattström, L., Hultberg, B. Clin. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
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