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Chemical Compound Review

CID5908     sodium; ethylmercury; 2-sulfidobenzoate

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Disease relevance of Thiosalicylic acid


Psychiatry related information on Thiosalicylic acid


High impact information on Thiosalicylic acid

  • CONTEXT: In July 1999, due to concerns about thimerosal content, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Public Health Service (PHS) recommended suspending hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination at birth except for mothers who had positive or unknown hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) status [9].
  • In September 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that hospitals resume HBV vaccination at birth with a new thimerosal-free vaccine [9].
  • Single corneas of nine patients about to undergo full-thickness corneal keratoplasty were exposed to thiomersal by application of a hydrophilic gel contact lens preserved with this mercurial agent [10].
  • Pharmacological agents that increase the endogenous levels of AA by stimulating AA release (melittin) or by inhibiting its reacylation (thimerosal) also promote [3H]2DG uptake by astrocytes [11].
  • Thimerosal, an inhibitor of arachidonoyl- CoA:l-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acyl transferase or lysophosphocholine acyl transferase (LAT), produced a similar pattern of metabolic abnormality, with decreased incorporation into phospholipid but relative increase into AcylCn [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Thiosalicylic acid


Biological context of Thiosalicylic acid

  • However interphase oocytes were able to generate Ca2+ transients in response to thimerosal [18].
  • Effect of thimerosal in leukemia, in leukemic cell lines, and on normal hematopoiesis [19].
  • Reported increases in the prevalence of autism, a highly heritable neuropsychiatric condition, are intensifying public focus on environmental exposures such as thimerosal [20].
  • Contaminated tincture of thimerosal used to swab the rubber stoppers of blood culture bottles prior to venting (aerobic) or during blind subculturing after 24 hours of incubation (anaerobic) in the clinical microbiology laboratory was determined to be the cause of the pseudobacteremia [21].
  • Exposure to thimerosal, an oxidizing agent that modifies the IP3R without stimulating production of IP3, also initiated down-regulation of IP3R-1, although oscillations initiated by SrCl(2) failed to evoke down-regulation of IP3R-1 [22].

Anatomical context of Thiosalicylic acid

  • Following exposure of rabbit aortae (with intact endothelium) to the EDRF stimulators acetylcholine, A23187, or thimerosal, a humoral dilator compound could be assayed in the adventitial superfusate of the vessels [23].
  • Activation of endogenous NO formation with thimerosal (10(-5) to 10(-4) mol/L) reduced maximum baroreceptor activity in five of eight experiments to 59 +/- 7% of the control maximum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[24]
  • Fertilisation and thimerosal stimulate similar calcium spiking patterns in mouse oocytes but by separate mechanisms [25].
  • Subsequent studies with thimerosal alone showed it to induce differentiation in leukemic blasts from three patients and the human leukemia cell lines U937, K562, and KG-1 [19].
  • This effect was not reproduced by thimerosal and was also not observed in experiments on cerebellum microsomes [26].

Associations of Thiosalicylic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Thiosalicylic acid

  • These thimerosal-exposed DC induced increased TH2 (IL-5 and IL-13) and decreased TH1 (IFN-gamma) cytokine secretion from the T cells in the absence of additional thimerosal added to the coculture [32].
  • Thimerosal exposure of DC led to the depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH), and addition of exogenous GSH to DC abolished the TH2-promoting effect of thimerosal-treated DC, restoring secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-12p70 by DC and IFN-gamma secretion by T cells [32].
  • The oxidant thimerosal modulates gating behavior of KCNQ1 by interaction with the channel outer shell [33].
  • Thimerosal (o-Ethylmercurithio)benzoic acid, TMS), a membrane-impermeable, sulfhydryl-oxidizing agent, has been described to increase the K+ current IKs in KCNE1-injected Xenopus laevis oocytes [33].
  • When the incubations were performed in the presence of 100 mM thimerosal, which inhibited PLTP but not CETP activity, the conversion of diLAP-labeled HDL3 into HDL2 was almost completely blocked [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Thiosalicylic acid


  1. Immunoadjuvant effects of Blastomyces dermatitidis against EL 4 lymphoma in C57BL/6J mice. McDaniel, L.S., Cozad, G.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Mercury concentrations and metabolism in infants receiving vaccines containing thiomersal: a descriptive study. Pichichero, M.E., Cernichiari, E., Lopreiato, J., Treanor, J. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Delayed hypersensitivity to thimerosal in RhO(D) immunoglobulin. Luka, R.E., Oppenheimer, J.J., Miller, N., Rossi, J., Bielory, L. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Ocular hypersensitivity to thimerosal in rabbits. Baines, M.G., Cai, F., Backman, H.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Vaccines without thiomersal: why so necessary, why so long coming? van't Veen, A.J. Drugs (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Neurological adverse events associated with vaccination. Piyasirisilp, S., Hemachudha, T. Curr. Opin. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Neurodevelopmental disorders after thimerosal-containing vaccines: a brief communication. Geier, M.R., Geier, D.A. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. A two-phased population epidemiological study of the safety of thimerosal-containing vaccines: a follow-up analysis. Geier, D.A., Geier, M.R. Med. Sci. Monit. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Impact of recommendations to suspend the birth dose of hepatitis B virus vaccine. Oram, R.J., Daum, R.S., Seal, J.B., Lauderdale, D.S. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Penetration of mercury from ophthalmic preservatives into the human eye. Winder, A.F., Astbury, N.J., Sheraidah, G.A., Ruben, M. Lancet (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Arachidonic acid stimulates glucose uptake in cerebral cortical astrocytes. Yu, N., Martin, J.L., Stella, N., Magistretti, P.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Cholesterol-loading of membranes of normal erythrocytes inhibits phospholipid repair and arachidonoyl-CoA:1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acyl transferase. A model of spur cell anemia. Allen, D.W., Manning, N. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Cyclopiazonic acid decreases spontaneous transient depolarizations in guinea pig mesenteric lymphatic vessels in endothelium-dependent and -independent manners. Ferrusi, I., Zhao, J., van Helden, D., von der Weid, P.Y. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Light-induced genetic toxicity of thimerosal and benzalkonium chloride in commercial contact lens solutions. Lovely, T.J., Levin, D.E., Klekowski, E. Mutat. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Alteration of the spontaneous systemic autoimmune disease in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice by treatment with thimerosal (ethyl mercury). Havarinasab, S., Hultman, P. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Thimerosal in the detection of clinically relevant allergic contact reactions. Suneja, T., Belsito, D.V. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Irritant and allergic responses as influenced by triamcinolone in patch test materials. Rietschel, R.L. Archives of dermatology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Repetitive sperm-induced Ca2+ transients in mouse oocytes are cell cycle dependent. Jones, K.T., Carroll, J., Merriman, J.A., Whittingham, D.G., Kono, T. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of thimerosal in leukemia, in leukemic cell lines, and on normal hematopoiesis. Panella, T.J., Huang, A.T. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Neurotoxic effects of postnatal thimerosal are mouse strain dependent. Hornig, M., Chian, D., Lipkin, W.I. Mol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Pseudobacteremia caused by Clostridium sordellii. Lynch, J.M., Anderson, A., Camacho, F.R., Winters, A.K., Hodges, G.R., Barnes, W.G. Arch. Intern. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. Down-regulation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor in mouse eggs following fertilization or parthenogenetic activation. Jellerette, T., He, C.L., Wu, H., Parys, J.B., Fissore, R.A. Dev. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Abluminal release and asymmetrical response of the rabbit arterial wall to endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Bassenge, E., Busse, R., Pohl, U. Circ. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Modulation of baroreceptor activity by nitric oxide and S-nitrosocysteine. Matsuda, T., Bates, J.N., Lewis, S.J., Abboud, F.M., Chapleau, M.W. Circ. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Fertilisation and thimerosal stimulate similar calcium spiking patterns in mouse oocytes but by separate mechanisms. Cheek, T.R., McGuinness, O.M., Vincent, C., Moreton, R.B., Berridge, M.J., Johnson, M.H. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. The effect of mersalyl on inositol trisphosphate receptor binding and ion channel function. Joseph, S.K., Ryan, S.V., Pierson, S., Renard-Rooney, D., Thomas, A.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Spatiotemporal dynamics of intracellular [Ca2+]i oscillations during the growth and meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes. Carroll, J., Swann, K., Whittingham, D., Whitaker, M. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of arachidonic acid reacylation on leukotriene biosynthesis in human neutrophils stimulated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Zarini, S., Gijón, M.A., Folco, G., Murphy, R.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. The thiol reagent, thimerosal, evokes Ca2+ spikes in HeLa cells by sensitizing the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor. Bootman, M.D., Taylor, C.W., Berridge, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Thiol reagents increase the affinity of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor. Hilly, M., Piétri-Rouxel, F., Coquil, J.F., Guy, M., Mauger, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Sulfhydryl reagents and cAMP-dependent kinase increase the sensitivity of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor in hepatocytes. Bird, G.S., Burgess, G.M., Putney, J.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Thimerosal induces TH2 responses via influencing cytokine secretion by human dendritic cells. Agrawal, A., Kaushal, P., Agrawal, S., Gollapudi, S., Gupta, S. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  33. The oxidant thimerosal modulates gating behavior of KCNQ1 by interaction with the channel outer shell. Kerst, G., Brousos, H., Schreiber, R., Nitschke, R., Hug, M.J., Greger, R., Bleich, M. J. Membr. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Plasma factors affecting the in vitro conversion of high-density lipoproteins labeled with a non-transferable marker. Pulcini, T., Terru, P., Sparrow, J.T., Pownall, H.J., Ponsin, G. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Influence of free thiol group(s) on autoantibody-defined epitope of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Tsai, W.M., Roos, G., Hugli, T.E., Tan, E.M. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Incompetence of preovulatory mouse oocytes to undergo cortical granule exocytosis following induced calcium oscillations. Abbott, A.L., Fissore, R.A., Ducibella, T. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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