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Dpa  -  D-phenylalanine

Mus musculus

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Disease relevance of Dpa


Psychiatry related information on Dpa


High impact information on Dpa

  • The compound was internalized by cells, and this internalization was blocked by coincubation with a cyclic RGD peptide (cyclo[RGDfV], f is d-phenylalanine) that binds ABI with high affinity [4].
  • For further studies on the structural and conformational requirements of positions 2,3, and 7 in the bradykinin sequence, we replaced the proline residues by the more hydrophobic and conformationally restricted N-methyl-L- and D-phenylalanine (NMF) [5].
  • In contrast, 1.0 mM L-serine or D-phenylalanine had little effect on L-T4 transport [6].
  • D-Phenylalanine, along with morphine, acetylsalicylic acid and zomepirac sodium were evaluated for their antinociceptive actions in monkeys (M. fascicularis) trained to autoregulate nociceptive stimulation using a discrete-trials, aversive-threshold paradigm [7].
  • Morphine sulfate produced dose-related increases in aversive threshold which were reversible after administration of naloxone (12.5 or 25 micrograms/kg i.m.). D-Phenylalanine (500 mg/kg p.o.) produced a small increase in aversive threshold which was not statistically significant and not naloxone reversible [7].

Biological context of Dpa


Anatomical context of Dpa


Associations of Dpa with chemical compounds

  • 0. There were no strain differences in neural responses at 600 or 900 ms after onset, but, with a 5 s evoked period, responses to the sweeteners sucrose, maltose, acesulfame-K, SC-45647, and D-phenylalanine were significantly larger in B6 relative to 129 mice [14].
  • Three consistent groupings of strains were observed across substances and concentrations: (1) C57BI/6J (preference at low and high concentrations); (2) BALB/cByJ and C3HeB/FeJ (preference at high concentrations); (3) 129/J and DBA/2J (preference at high concentration for sodium saccharin and indifference to d-phenylalanine and l-glutamine) [15].
  • Five inbred strains (129/J, BALB/cByJ, C3HeB/FeJ, C57BI/6J and DBA/2J) were examined with two-bottle (48 h) preference ratio testing across concentrations of sodium saccharin (3 x 10(-4) M, 10(-3) M, 3 x 10(-3) M and 10(-2) M), d-phenylalanine (10(-3) M, 10(-2) M and 10(-1) M), and l-glutamine (10(-2) M, 3 x 10(-2) M, 10(-1) M and 3 x 10(-1) M) [15].
  • Out of 8 sucrose-best fibers, 5 fibers showed enhancement of D-Phe responses after the stimulation with Sac, but neither the remaining 3 sucrose-best fibers nor other fibers showed the enhancement [11].
  • For chorda tympani responses, significant linkages to Tas1r3 were found for the sweeteners sucrose, saccharin, D-phenylalanine, D-tryptophan, and SC-45647 but not glycine, L-proline, L-alanine, or L-glutamine [16].

Other interactions of Dpa


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Dpa

  • Our failure to find opiate receptor mediated analgesia in a primate model with demonstrated opiate receptor selectivity and sensitivity is discussed in terms of previous basic and clinical research indicating an analgesic role for D-phenylalanine [7].
  • Lowest pain level of the visual analog scale was reported by 47% of the patients on DPA and 53% on placebo [3].


  1. Enkephalinase inhibition relieves pain syndromes of central dysnociception (migraine and related headache). Sicuteri, F. Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Pharmacology of enkephalinase inhibitors: animal and human studies. Ehrenpreis, S. Acupuncture & electro-therapeutics research. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Analgesic effectiveness of D-phenylalanine in chronic pain patients. Walsh, N.E., Ramamurthy, S., Schoenfeld, L., Hoffman, J. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Synergistic effects of light-emitting probes and peptides for targeting and monitoring integrin expression. Achilefu, S., Bloch, S., Markiewicz, M.A., Zhong, T., Ye, Y., Dorshow, R.B., Chance, B., Liang, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Highly selective bradykinin agonists and antagonists with replacement of proline residues by N-methyl-D- and L-phenylalanine. Reissmann, S., Schwuchow, C., Seyfarth, L., Pineda De Castro, L.F., Liebmann, C., Paegelow, I., Werner, H., Stewart, J.M. J. Med. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. The transport of thyroxine into mouse neuroblastoma cells, NB41A3: the effect of L-system amino acids. Lakshmanan, M., Goncalves, E., Lessly, G., Foti, D., Robbins, J. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. D-phenylalanine: a putative enkephalinase inhibitor studied in a primate acute pain model. Halpern, L.M., Dong, W.K. Pain (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. The nutritive value and safety of D-phenylalanine and D-tyrosine in mice. Friedman, M., Gumbmann, M.R. J. Nutr. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Analgesic properties of enkephalinase inhibitors: animal and human studies. Ehrenpreis, S. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. The effects of D-phenylalanine and its derivatives on enkephalin degradation in vitro: relation to analgesia and attenuation of the morphine withdrawal syndrome. Janicki, P.K., Gumułka, S.W., Szreniawski, Z., Paulo, E.A., Arnold, Z. Polish journal of pharmacology and pharmacy. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Enhancing effects of saccharin on gustatory responses to D-phenylalanine in monkey single chorda tympani fibers. Ninomiya, Y., Hellekant, G. Brain Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. The enhancing effects of amastatin, phosphoramidon and captopril on the potency of [Met5]-enkephalin in rat vas deferens. Cui, S.Y., Kajiwara, M., Ishii, K., Aoki, K., Sakamoto, J., Matsumiya, T., Oka, T. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. The inactivation of [Met5]-enkephalin by bestatin-sensitive aminopeptidase, captopril-sensitive peptidyl dipeptidase A and thiorphan-sensitive endopeptidase-24.11 in mouse vas deferens. Aoki, K., Kajiwara, M., Oka, T. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Taste-evoked responses to sweeteners in the nucleus of the solitary tract differ between C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice. McCaughey, S.A. J. Neurosci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. The genetic basis of preference for sweet substances among inbred strains of mice: preference ratio phenotypes and the alleles of the Sac and dpa loci. Capeless, C.G., Whitney, G. Chem. Senses (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Allelic variation of the Tas1r3 taste receptor gene selectively affects behavioral and neural taste responses to sweeteners in the F2 hybrids between C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice. Inoue, M., Reed, D.R., Li, X., Tordoff, M.G., Beauchamp, G.K., Bachmanov, A.A. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Enhancement of murine gustatory neural responses to D-amino acids by saccharin. Ninomiya, Y., Kajiura, H. Brain Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Antinociceptive effect of some carboxypeptidase A inhibitors in comparison with D-phenylalanine. Giusti, P., Carrara, M., Cima, L., Borin, G. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Enkephalinase inhibition: regulation of ethanol intake in genetically predisposed mice. Blum, K., Briggs, A.H., Trachtenberg, M.C., Delallo, L., Wallace, J.E. Alcohol (1987) [Pubmed]
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