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Gene Review

ESM1  -  endothelial cell-specific molecule 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ESM-1, Endothelial cell-specific molecule 1
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Disease relevance of ESM1

  • ESM-1 also called endocan, is overexpressed in hypervascularized cancers [1]
  • In lung cancers, endocan / ESM-1 was shown to be overpressed in tissues sections by immunohistochemistry and in blood using a sandwich ELISA. Endocan appears as a prognostic biomarker in lung cancers [2]
  • Vascular endocan / ESM-1 is markedly overexpressed in renal cell carcinoma [3]. High levels of blood endocan / ESM-1 measured by ELISA were observed in patients suffering from renal clear cell carcinoma carcinoma.
  • Using monoclonal antibodies against endocan and by immunohistochemistry, Endocan / ESM-1 was shown to be overexpressed in high grade glioma [4]. Low grade glioma does not express vascular endocan.
  • Endocan / ESM-1 is overexpressed in gastric cancers [5]
  • As obesity is related to systemic inflammation (examplified by increased circulating levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6), the formation of ESM-1 in adipocytes and its activation by protein kinase C may play a role in the regulation of inflammatory processes [6].
  • Moreover, ESM-1 was detected in the serum of healthy subjects at an average concentration of 1.08 ng/ml, and we demonstrated that the serum level of ESM-1 is dramatically increased in patients presenting a septic shock [7].
  • Endocan or endothelial cell-specific molecule-1: a novel prognostic marker of sepsis [8]
  • Circulating ESM-1 levels are reduced in the overweight and obese, consistent with the notion that ESM-1 may play some role in obesity-associated vascular disease [9].

High impact information on ESM1

  • Endocan also called endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 is a dermatan sulfate proteoglycan of 50 kDa, freely circulating in blood and secreting by human endothelial cells [10]
  • Endocan / ESM-1 binds HGF / SF, a pro-angiogenic molecule through its dermatan sulfate chain [10]
  • Endocan / ESM-1 is a biomarker of tip cells as observed in neoangiogenesis [11]

Human endothelial-cell specific molecule-1 binds directly to the integrin CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1) and blocks binding to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [12].


Biological context of ESM1


Anatomical context of ESM1


Associations of ESM1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of ESM1

  • Identification of endothelial cell genes expressed in an in vitro model of angiogenesis: induction of ESM-1, (beta)ig-h3, and NrCAM [15].
  • Analysis of the identified sequences revealed an upregulation of several mRNAs with adenine and uracil-rich elements (ARE) in their 3'-untranslated regions, such as IL-8, ESM-1 and VCAM-1 [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ESM1


  1. Endocan or endothelial cell specific molecule-1 (ESM-1): a potential novel endothelial cell marker and a new target for cancer therapy. Sarrazin, S., Adam, E., Lyon, M., Depontieu, F., Motte, V., Landolfi, C., Lortat-Jacob, H., Bechard, D., Lassalle, P., Delehedde, M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Endocan expression and relationship with survival in human non-small cell lung cancer. Grigoriu, B.D., Depontieu, F., Scherpereel, A., Gourcerol, D., Devos, P., Ouatas, T., Lafitte, J.J., Copin, M.C., Tonnel, A.B., Lassalle, P. Clin. Cancer. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Vascular endocan (ESM-1) is markedly overexpressed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Leroy, X., Aubert, S., Zini, L., Franquet, H., Kervoaze, G., Villers, A., Delehedde, M., Copin, M.C., Lassalle, P. Histopathology. (2010) [Pubmed]
  4. Endocan expression and localization in human glioblastomas. Maurage, C.A., Adam, E., Minéo, J.F., Sarrazin, S., Debunne, M., Siminski, R.M., Baroncini, M., Lassalle, P., Blond, S., Delehedde, M. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2009) [Pubmed]
  5. Overexpression of Endothelial Cell Specific Molecule-1 (ESM-1) in Gastric Cancer. Liu, N., Zhang, L.H., Du, H., Hu, Y., Zhang, G.G., Wang, X.H., Li, J.Y., Ji, J.F. Ann. Surg. Oncol. (2010) [Pubmed]
  6. Endothelial cell specific molecule-1--a newly identified protein in adipocytes. Wellner, M., Herse, F., Janke, J., Gorzelniak, K., Engeli, S., Bechart, D., Lasalle, P., Luft, F.C., Sharma, A.M. Horm. Metab. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of the secreted form of endothelial-cell-specific molecule 1 by specific monoclonal antibodies. Bechard, D., Meignin, V., Scherpereel, A., Oudin, S., Kervoaze, G., Bertheau, P., Janin, A., Tonnel, A., Lassalle, P. J. Vasc. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Endocan or endothelial cell-specific molecule-1: a novel prognostic marker of sepsis? Filep, J.G. Crit. Care Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Adipose tissue and circulating endothelial cell specific molecule-1 in human obesity. Janke, J., Engeli, S., Gorzelniak, K., Feldpausch, M., Heintze, U., Böhnke, J., Wellner, M., Herse, F., Lassalle, P., Luft, F.C., Sharma, A.M. Horm. Metab. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization and binding activity of the chonDroitin / dermatan sulphate chain from Endocan, a soluble endothelial Proteoglycan. Sarrazin, S., Lyon, M., Deakin, J.A., Guerrini, M., Lassalle, P., Delehedde, M., Lortat-Jacob, H. Glycobiology. (2010) [Pubmed]
  11. Microarray analysis of retinal endothelial tip cells identifies CXCR4 as a mediator of tip cell morphology and branching. Strasser, G.A., Kaminker, J.S., Tessier-Lavigne, M. Blood. (2010) [Pubmed]
  12. Human endothelial-cell specific molecule-1 binds directly to the integrin CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1) and blocks binding to intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Béchard, D., Scherpereel, A., Hammad, H., Gentina, T., Tsicopoulos, A., Aumercier, M., Pestel, J., Dessaint, J.P., Tonnel, A.B., Lassalle, P. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. ESM-1 is a novel human endothelial cell-specific molecule expressed in lung and regulated by cytokines. Lassalle, P., Molet, S., Janin, A., Heyden, J.V., Tavernier, J., Fiers, W., Devos, R., Tonnel, A.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Cloning and characterization of the human lung endothelial-cell-specific molecule-1 promoter. Tsai, J.C., Zhang, J., Minami, T., Voland, C., Zhao, S., Yi, X., Lassalle, P., Oettgen, P., Aird, W.C. J. Vasc. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of endothelial cell genes expressed in an in vitro model of angiogenesis: induction of ESM-1, (beta)ig-h3, and NrCAM. Aitkenhead, M., Wang, S.J., Nakatsu, M.N., Mestas, J., Heard, C., Hughes, C.C. Microvasc. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. LPL-mediated lipolysis of VLDL induces an upregulation of AU-rich mRNAs and an activation of HuR in endothelial cells. O Tschernatsch, M.M., Mlecnik, B., Trajanoski, Z., Zechner, R., Zimmermann, R. Atherosclerosis (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Endocan, a new endothelial marker in human sepsis. Scherpereel, A., Depontieu, F., Grigoriu, B., Cavestri, B., Tsicopoulos, A., Gentina, T., Jourdain, M., Pugin, J., Tonnel, A.B., Lassalle, P. Crit. Care. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification and functional analysis of endothelial tip cell-enriched genes. Del Toro, R., Prahst, C., Mathivet, T., Siegfried, G., Kaminker, J.S., Larrivee, B., Breant, C., Duarte, A., Takakura, N., Fukamizu, A., Penninger, J., Eichmann, A. Blood. (2010) [Pubmed]
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