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Gene Review

CTSD  -  cathepsin D

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CLN10, CPSD, Cathepsin D, HEL-S-130P
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Disease relevance of CTSD


Psychiatry related information on CTSD

  • The cathepsin D gene (CTSD) exon 2 (C224T) polymorphism has been associated with an increased risk for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), but with controversial findings [4].
  • In contrast, CTSD T/APOEepsilon4-positive volunteers scored lower on tests of fluid intelligence (P = 0.015), processing speed (ACT, P = 0.001; RL, P = 0.013) and immediate recall (P = 0.029) [5].

High impact information on CTSD

  • The mean residence time of cathepsin D precursor in coated membranes was estimated to be 2 min [6].
  • The extraction of this cathepsin D precursor was independent of mannose 6-phosphate and was complete after a brief exposure to saponin [6].
  • Two missense mutations in the CTSD gene, F229I and W383C, were identified and were found to cause markedly reduced proteolytic activity and a diminished amount of cathepsin D in patient fibroblasts [7].
  • In HL-60R cells, none of the agents alone or in combination significantly enhances the expression of the ctsd, IL-8, or ctsl mRNAs [8].
  • In HL-60 cells, cathepsin D (ctsd) mRNA levels are increased by these agents and by cholera toxin after pretreatment with each agent [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of CTSD

  • Cathepsin inhibition was investigated in the dextran-sulphate-sodium (DSS) colitis model in mice with application of pepstatin A (CTSD inhibitor), CA-074 (CTSB inhibitor) and Z-Phe-Tyr-aldehyde (CTSL inhibitor) [2].

Biological context of CTSD

  • The T allele of the CTSD genotype was associated with a 50% decrease in Abeta(42) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid [9].
  • Thus, if sequence variations within the CTSD gene influence the risk for various diseases, the pathogenic mechanism is likely to be linked to the amino acid substitution in the profragment of CTSD [1].
  • The regional differences in CTSD allele frequencies could be related to the different patterns of association between this polymorphism and AD in various European studies [4].
  • Transmission analysis in a 99 dog pedigree of American Bulldogs indicated a probability of less than 10(-7) that alleles from any mutation unlinked to CTSD would be concordant with the pedigree and phenotypes of the dogs [10].
  • Furthermore, low CTSD was significantly associated with serous histology and advanced tumor stage [11].

Anatomical context of CTSD


Associations of CTSD with chemical compounds

  • Ceramide specifically binds to and induces CTSD proteolytic activity [14].
  • These studies demonstrate a novel and potentially important role for CTSD in intracellular cholesterol trafficking and ABCA1-mediated efflux [13].
  • In secretions of [(33)P]phosphate-labelled macrophages no or weakly phosphorylated ASA and CTSD precursor polypeptides were found, whereas both intracellular and secreted ASA from ASA-overexpressing baby hamster kidney cells displayed (33)P-labelled M6P residues [15].
  • All of the monocytic inducers stimulate ctsd mRNA, and both calcitriol and sodium butyrate significantly potentiate the subsequent response to retinoic acid [16].
  • Pretreatment with retinoic acid enhances the response of the ctsd gene to prostaglandin E2 [16].

Enzymatic interactions of CTSD


Other interactions of CTSD

  • No statistically significant differences were found in CTSD allele or genotype frequencies between AD patients and controls, and there were no interactions with sex or APOE genotype [4].
  • Two mutations have been described in animal genes (cln8/mnd, CTSD) [18].
  • Aspartyl protease Cathepsin D (CTSD) has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to interference with protein degradation mechanisms [19].
  • The exonic regions of the CTSD gene were screened for further polymorphic variations using polymerase chain reaction and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis [1].
  • Mutations in two additional genes cause disease in animal models that share features with NCL-CTSD in sheep and mice and PPT2 in mice [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CTSD

  • We observed a significant association (P = 0.01) between a functional C > T (Ala > Val) transition within exon 2 of the CTSD gene that increases the secretion of pro-CTSD from the cell, and the AH4-1 score at initial testing on entry to the longitudinal study [12].
  • Two recent case-control studies have suggested a strong association of a missense polymorphism in exon 2 of the cathepsin D gene (CTSD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) [21].
  • The authors performed a meta-analysis of 14 studies (16 comparisons) with CTSD genotyping (3,174 Alzheimer's disease cases and 3,298 controls) [22].
  • CTSD and APOE genotyping were performed by PCR on DNA extracted from blood, or from frontal cortex or cerebellum in the postmortem cases [23].
  • Blue-on-yellow perimetry showed a significant reduction in CPSD from 3.81 +/- 1.60 to 2.71 +/- 1.92 (p < 0.05) [24].


  1. Cathepsin D: screening for new polymorphisms using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Majores, M., Kolsch, H., Bagli, M., Papassotiropoulos, A., Lohmann, P.L., Schmitz, S., Rao, M.L., Maier, W., Heun, R. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Cathepsins B, L and D in inflammatory bowel disease macrophages and potential therapeutic effects of cathepsin inhibition in vivo. Menzel, K., Hausmann, M., Obermeier, F., Schreiter, K., Dunger, N., Bataille, F., Falk, W., Scholmerich, J., Herfarth, H., Rogler, G. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of cataract extraction on the results of automated perimetry in glaucoma. Smith, S.D., Katz, J., Quigley, H.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. The cathepsin D gene exon 2 (C224T) polymorphism and sporadic Alzheimer's disease in European populations. Capurso, C., Solfrizzi, V., D'Introno, A., Colacicco, A.M., Capurso, S.A., Mastroianni, F., Liaci, M., Vendemiale, G., Capurso, A., Panza, F. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Influence and interactions of cathepsin D, HLA-DRB1 and APOE on cognitive abilities in an older non-demented population. Payton, A., van den Boogerd, E., Davidson, Y., Gibbons, L., Ollier, W., Rabbitt, P., Worthington, J., Horan, M., Pendleton, N. Genes Brain Behav. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Cathepsin D precursors in clathrin-coated organelles from human fibroblasts. Schulze-Lohoff, E., Hasilik, A., von Figura, K. J. Cell Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Cathepsin D deficiency is associated with a human neurodegenerative disorder. Steinfeld, R., Reinhardt, K., Schreiber, K., Hillebrand, M., Kraetzner, R., Bruck, W., Saftig, P., Gartner, J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Comparative responsiveness of HL-60, HL-60R, and HL-60R+ (LRARSN) cells to retinoic acid, calcitriol, 9 cis-retinoic acid, and sodium butyrate. Atkins, K.B., Troen, B.R. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of beta-amyloid(42) in patients with Alzheimer's disease are related to the exon 2 polymorphism of the cathepsin D gene. Papassotiropoulos, A., Lewis, H.D., Bagli, M., Jessen, F., Ptok, U., Schulte, A., Shearman, M.S., Heun, R. Neuroreport (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. A mutation in the cathepsin D gene (CTSD) in American Bulldogs with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Awano, T., Katz, M.L., O'Brien, D.P., Taylor, J.F., Evans, J., Khan, S., Sohar, I., Lobel, P., Johnson, G.S. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification of clinically relevant genes on chromosome 11 in a functional model of ovarian cancer tumor suppression. Stronach, E.A., Sellar, G.C., Blenkiron, C., Rabiasz, G.J., Taylor, K.J., Miller, E.P., Massie, C.E., Al-Nafussi, A., Smyth, J.F., Porteous, D.J., Gabra, H. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Cathepsin D exon 2 polymorphism associated with general intelligence in a healthy older population. Payton, A., Holland, F., Diggle, P., Rabbitt, P., Horan, M., Davidson, Y., Gibbons, L., Worthington, J., Ollier, W.E., Pendleton, N. Mol. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Cathepsin D, a lysosomal protease, regulates ABCA1-mediated lipid efflux. Haidar, B., Kiss, R.S., Sarov-Blat, L., Brunet, R., Harder, C., McPherson, R., Marcel, Y.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Ceramide as an activator lipid of cathepsin D. Heinrich, M., Wickel, M., Winoto-Morbach, S., Schneider-Brachert, W., Weber, T., Brunner, J., Saftig, P., Peters, C., Krönke, M., Schütze, S. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Secretion of phosphomannosyl-deficient arylsulphatase A and cathepsin D from isolated human macrophages. Muschol, N., Matzner, U., Tiede, S., Gieselmann, V., Ullrich, K., Braulke, T. Biochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of cathepsin D gene expression in HL-60 cells by retinoic acid and calcitriol. Atkins, K.B., Troen, B.R. Cell Growth Differ. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Association between cathepsin D polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease in a Chinese Han population. Li, X.Q., Chen, D., Zhang, Z.X., Qu, Q.M., Zhang, J.W. Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. New mutations in the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis genes. Mole, S.E., Zhong, N.A., Sarpong, A., Logan, W.P., Hofmann, S., Yi, W., Franken, P.F., van Diggelen, O.P., Breuning, M.H., Moroziewicz, D., Ju, W., Salonen, T., Holmberg, V., Järvelä, I., Taschner, P.E. Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Modulation of disease risk according to a cathepsin D / apolipoprotein E genotype in Parkinson's disease. Schulte, T., Böhringer, S., Schöls, L., Müller, T., Fischer, C., Riess, O., Przuntek, H., Berger, K., Epplen, J.T., Krüger, R. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Correlations between genotype, ultrastructural morphology and clinical phenotype in the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Mole, S.E., Williams, R.E., Goebel, H.H. Neurogenetics (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. No evidence for genetic association or linkage of the cathepsin D (CTSD) exon 2 polymorphism and Alzheimer disease. Bertram, L., Guénette, S., Jones, J., Keeney, D., Mullin, K., Crystal, A., Basu, S., Yhu, S., Deng, A., Rebeck, G.W., Hyman, B.T., Go, R., McInnis, M., Blacker, D., Tanzi, R. Ann. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Meta-analysis of the association of the cathepsin D Ala224Val gene polymorphism with the risk of Alzheimer's disease: a HuGE gene-disease association review. Ntais, C., Polycarpou, A., Ioannidis, J.P. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Genetic associations between cathepsin D exon 2 C-->T polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease, and pathological correlations with genotype. Davidson, Y., Gibbons, L., Pritchard, A., Hardicre, J., Wren, J., Tian, J., Shi, J., Stopford, C., Julien, C., Thompson, J., Payton, A., Thaker, U., Hayes, A.J., Iwatsubo, T., Pickering-Brown, S.M., Pendleton, N., Horan, M.A., Burns, A., Purandare, N., Lendon, C.L., Neary, D., Snowden, J.S., Mann, D.M. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of brimonidine 0.2% on blue-yellow perimetry of glaucomatous patients. Mastropasqua, L., Ciancaglini, M., Carpineto, P., Zuppardi, E., Falconio, G., Gallenga, P.E. Acta ophthalmologica Scandinavica. Supplement. (1998) [Pubmed]
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