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Gene Review

ERF  -  Ets2 repressor factor

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CRS4, ETS domain-containing transcription factor ERF, PE-2, PE2
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Disease relevance of ERF


Psychiatry related information on ERF

  • Our results suggest that localisation of ERF components is indeed an applicative tool for investigating cortical deviances in dyslexia [5].
  • Arteriosclerosis index (4.2+/-1.2 vs 3.7+/-1.7; p = 0.050), ERF (6.4+/-1.9 vs 5.5+/-2.4; p = 0.010), and ATP-III (12.1+/-3.3 vs 10.2+/-3.8; p<0.001) were higher in PTSD than in the control group [6].
  • ERF in ID genotype showed a strong negative correlation with HDL-C (r = -0.73), strong positive correlation with TG (r = 0.70), and T-C (r = 0.58), and slight positive correlation with LDL-C (r = 0.36) and alcohol abuse (r = 0.34) [7].

High impact information on ERF

  • ERF (ETS2 Repressor Factor) is a novel member of the ets family of genes, which was isolated by virtue of its interaction with the ets binding site (EBS) within the ETS2 promoter [8].
  • The localization of the DNA-binding domain of the protein at the N-terminus and th repression domain at the C-terminus is reminiscent of the organization of ELK1-like members of the ets family; however, there is no significant homology between ERF and ELK1 or any other ets member outside the DNA-binding domain [8].
  • Although ERF protein levels remain constant throughout the cell cycle, the phosphorylation level of the protein is altered as a function of the cell cycle and after mitogenic stimulation [8].
  • Obstruction of the ERF repressor function by the transactivating members of the ets family of genes (i.e.gag-myb-ets) may be essential for the control of genes involved in cell proliferation and may also underlie their tumorigenic effects [8].
  • ERF: an ETS domain protein with strong transcriptional repressor activity, can suppress ets-associated tumorigenesis and is regulated by phosphorylation during cell cycle and mitogenic stimulation [8].

Biological context of ERF

  • Our data suggest a model in which modulation of ERF activity is involved in the transcriptional regulation of genes activated during entry into G1 phase [8].
  • Furthermore, ERF can suppress the ets-dependent transforming activity of the gag-myb-ets fusion oncogene of ME26 virus [8].
  • Utilizing FISH, somatic cell hybrids and linkage analysis, we identified the chromosomal position of ERF on human chromosome 19q13.1 and on its syntenic region in the mouse, on chromosome 7 [9].
  • While nuclear import is not affected by phosphorylation, ERF nuclear export and cytoplasmic release require multisite phosphorylation and dephosphorylation [10].
  • In this study, we demonstrate that the ES transformed phenotype can be suppressed by chimeric transcriptional repressors containing the DNA-binding domain of FLI1 and the regulatory and repressor domain of ERF, a transcription suppressor and member of the ets gene family [3].

Anatomical context of ERF

  • Using pluripotent human cell lines, we studied the effect of ERF on erythroid differentiation [11].
  • Titers of erythroid regulatory factors (ERF), as measured in vivo with a standard erythrocythemic mouse technique, showed a highly significant correlation with those obtained in vitro with a fetal mouse liver cell (FMLC) assay [12].
  • Results suggested that there were two subpopulations of autoreactive cells obtained from the preculture; the high and low density small lymphocytes, both having ERF activity [13].
  • CONCLUSION: The underlying cause of ERF in the majority of cases with normal amniotic fluid volume is renal ectopia [14].
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the antenatal sonographic findings and postnatal follow-up of fetuses with empty renal fossa (ERF) and normal amniotic fluid volume [14].

Associations of ERF with chemical compounds

  • Substitution of Thr526 for glutamic acid also decreases the repression ability of ERF [8].
  • The inhibitory responses of the prolactin promoter to ERF and dopamine are additive, suggesting that ERF has a complementary role in this hormonal response [2].
  • Four new members of the ERF (ethylene-response factor) family of plant-specific DNA-binding (GCC box) factors were isolated from tomato fruit (LeERF1-4) [15].
  • We isolated and identified four rice genes, OsBIERF1 to OsBIERF4 (Oryza sativa benzothiadiazole (BTH)-induced ethylene responsive transcriptional factors (ERF)) and analyzed their expressions in rice disease resistance response and under various abiotic stress conditions [16].
  • AI, ERF, and ATP-III were calculated from cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-C levels [6].

Regulatory relationships of ERF

  • Together, these results demonstrate that ERF is a specific inhibitor of basal and hormone-regulated transcription of the prolactin gene and suggest a new level of complexity for the interaction of ETS factors with Pit-1 target genes [2].

Other interactions of ERF


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ERF

  • We recorded event-related magnetic cortical fields (ERF) by magnetoencephalography (MEG) after the presentation of a face or flower stimulus with COS conditioning using a face, flower, random pattern, and blank [18].
  • It was classified as an ERF subfamily member based on multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic characterization [19].


  1. Ets-2 Repressor Factor (ERF) mediates repression of the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoter in undifferentiated non-permissive cells. Bain, M., Mendelson, M., Sinclair, J. J. Gen. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Selective inhibition of prolactin gene transcription by the ETS-2 repressor factor. Day, R.N., Liu, J., Sundmark, V., Kawecki, M., Berry, D., Elsholtz, H.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Suppression of the Ewing's sarcoma phenotype by FLI1/ERF repressor hybrids. Athanasiou, M., LeGallic, L., Watson, D.K., Blair, D.G., Mavrothalassitis, G. Cancer Gene Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. AtERF14, a Member of the ERF Family of Transcription Factors, Plays a Nonredundant Role in Plant Defense. O??ate-S??nchez, L., Anderson, J.P., Young, J., Singh, K.B. Plant Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Reduced hemispheric asymmetry of the auditory N260m in dyslexia. Paul, I., Bott, C., Heim, S., Eulitz, C., Elbert, T. Neuropsychologia. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Elevated serum lipids in veterans with combat-related chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Solter, V., Thaller, V., Karlović, D., Crnković, D. Croat. Med. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism, lipids, and apolipoproteins in menopausal women on hormone replacement therapy. Cubrilo-Turek, M., Sertić, J., Duraković, Z. Acta medica Croatica : c̆asopis Hravatske akademije medicinskih znanosti. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. ERF: an ETS domain protein with strong transcriptional repressor activity, can suppress ets-associated tumorigenesis and is regulated by phosphorylation during cell cycle and mitogenic stimulation. Sgouras, D.N., Athanasiou, M.A., Beal, G.J., Fisher, R.J., Blair, D.G., Mavrothalassitis, G.J. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. ERF: genomic organization, chromosomal localization and promoter analysis of the human and mouse genes. Liu, D., Pavlopoulos, E., Modi, W., Moschonas, N., Mavrothalassitis, G. Oncogene (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. ERF nuclear shuttling, a continuous monitor of Erk activity that links it to cell cycle progression. Le Gallic, L., Virgilio, L., Cohen, P., Biteau, B., Mavrothalassitis, G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. ERF, an ETS-related transcriptional repressor, can induce erythroid differentiation. Athanasiou, M., Blair, D.G., Mavrothalassitis, G. Anticancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Erythroid regulatory factors: correlation of detectable titers in vivo and in vitro. Dunn, C.D., Lange, R.D. Blood (1978) [Pubmed]
  13. Induction of autoreactive cells by the preculture of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with the autologous fresh plasma. Tomonari, K., Aizawa, M. J. Immunol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. Sonographic findings of fetuses with an empty renal fossa and normal amniotic fluid volume. Yuksel, A., Batukan, C. Fetal. Diagn. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. New members of the tomato ERF family show specific expression pattern and diverse DNA-binding capacity to the GCC box element. Tournier, B., Sanchez-Ballesta, M.T., Jones, B., Pesquet, E., Regad, F., Latché, A., Pech, J.C., Bouzayen, M. FEBS Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Molecular characterization of four rice genes encoding ethylene-responsive transcriptional factors and their expressions in response to biotic and abiotic stress. Cao, Y., Song, F., Goodman, R.M., Zheng, Z. J. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Ets-2 repressor factor recruits histone deacetylase to silence human cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene expression in non-permissive cells. Wright, E., Bain, M., Teague, L., Murphy, J., Sinclair, J. J. Gen. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Differential priming effects of color-opponent subliminal stimulation on visual magnetic responses. Hoshiyama, M., Kakigi, R., Takeshima, Y., Miki, K., Watanabe, S. Human brain mapping. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Isolation and functional characterization of the JcERF gene, a putative AP2/EREBP domain-containing transcription factor, in the woody oil plant Jatropha curcas. Tang, M., Sun, J., Liu, Y., Chen, F., Shen, S. Plant Mol. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
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