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Gene Review

Fgf9  -  fibroblast growth factor 9

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: FGF-9, Fgf-9, Fibroblast growth factor 9, GAF, Glia-activating factor, ...
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Disease relevance of Fgf9

  • FGF-9 markedly stimulated both the proliferation of neointimal SMCs and the activation of extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2, effects which were abrogated by the administration of antisense FGF-9 oligonucleotides to injured arteries and the expression of the dominant negative FGFR-2 adenovirus in cultured neointimal SMCs [1].
  • Non-target-derived neurotrophic substances for motoneurons including FGF-9 should be important in the pathogenesis of motor neuron disorders in the adults, especially amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [2].
  • Induction of fibroblast growth factor-9 and interleukin-1alpha gene expression by motorcycle exhaust particulate extracts and benzo(a)pyrene in human lung adenocarcinoma cells [3].

Psychiatry related information on Fgf9


High impact information on Fgf9

  • GAF synthase catalyzed the conversion of 107 nmol of L-arginine into L-citrulline per min per mg of protein [5].
  • With calmodulin and NADPH as cofactors, purified soluble GAF synthase induced an increase of 1.05 mumol of cGMP per 10(6) RFL-6 cells per 3 min per mg of protein [5].
  • The soluble form of guanylyl cyclase-activating-factor (GAF) synthase from rat cerebellum was purified to homogeneity by sequential affinity chromatographic steps on adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate (2',5'-ADP)-Sepharose and calmodulin-agarose [5].
  • As was reported for fibroblasts, the IFN-gamma-regulated transcription factor GAF is phosphorylated at tyrosine after IFN-gamma treatment of HepG2 cells [6].
  • Furthermore, FGF9 specifically stimulated DNA synthesis in stromal cells expressing FGFR3 [7].

Biological context of Fgf9

  • These results demonstrate a directionally specific paracrine signaling from epithelial FGF9 and stromal FGFR3 [7].
  • Further, FGF-9 stimulated mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation [8].
  • In both models, FGF2 and FGF9 were found to promote cellular interactions as evidenced by the extent of cellular reorganization in the coculture system, and cord morphogenesis and growth in the organotypic culture system [9].

Anatomical context of Fgf9


Associations of Fgf9 with chemical compounds

  • Members of the series tested had n = 1.5, 4, 6, 8/9, 9, 10/11, 15, 20, 30 and 40 and were commercially available (Antarox CO series, GAF) [12].

Regulatory relationships of Fgf9

  • FGF9 also failed to covalently cross-link to clonal lines of stromal cells devoid of FGFR3 that expressed FGFR1 and FGFR2IIIc [7].

Other interactions of Fgf9

  • FGF-1, FGF-2, FGF-7, FGF-8, and FGF-9 were expressed in the kidney, with FGF-10 expression found only in the cortex [13].
  • This localization pattern was distinct from those of aFGF, bFGF FGF-5 and FGF-9 mRNAs reported previously [14].
  • FGF-5 specifically affects mesencephalic astroglial cells without changing coupling of cortical and striatal astroglia, while FGF-9 reduces gap junctional coupling in astroglia from all three brain regions [15].
  • FGF-9 altered FGFR and myelin protein levels during OL differentiation; there was increased expression of FGFR-1 and decreased levels of both FGFR-2 and myelin proteins [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fgf9

  • Competition binding and immunoprecipitation assays revealed that FGF9 only bound to an FGFR on the stromal cells [7].
  • FGF9 transcripts in whole rat retina were detected by RT-PCR but were not present in purified cultured Muller glia [16].
  • We next examined the effects of FGF2 and FGF9 in a coculture system using 20-day-old rat SCs and PCs, and in an organotypic culture system using XY rat embryonic gonads [9].


  1. Proliferation of neointimal smooth muscle cells after arterial injury. Dependence on interactions between fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 and fibroblast growth factor-9. Agrotis, A., Kanellakis, P., Kostolias, G., Di Vitto, G., Wei, C., Hannan, R., Jennings, G., Bobik, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. FGF-9 is an autocrine/paracrine neurotrophic substance for spinal motoneurons. Kanda, T., Iwasaki, T., Nakamura, S., Ueki, A., Kurokawa, T., Ikeda, K., Mizusawa, H. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Induction of fibroblast growth factor-9 and interleukin-1alpha gene expression by motorcycle exhaust particulate extracts and benzo(a)pyrene in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Ueng, T.H., Hung, C.C., Kuo, M.L., Chan, P.K., Hu, S.H., Yang, P.C., Chang, L.W. Toxicol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Self-secretion of fibroblast growth factor-9 supports basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Kanda, T., Iwasaki, T., Nakamura, S., Kurokawa, T., Ikeda, K., Mizusawa, H. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Purification of a soluble isoform of guanylyl cyclase-activating-factor synthase. Schmidt, H.H., Pollock, J.S., Nakane, M., Gorsky, L.D., Förstermann, U., Murad, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. The signalling pathways of interleukin-6 and gamma interferon converge by the activation of different transcription factors which bind to common responsive DNA elements. Yuan, J., Wegenka, U.M., Lütticken, C., Buschmann, J., Decker, T., Schindler, C., Heinrich, P.C., Horn, F. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Directionally specific paracrine communication mediated by epithelial FGF9 to stromal FGFR3 in two-compartment premalignant prostate tumors. Jin, C., Wang, F., Wu, X., Yu, C., Luo, Y., McKeehan, W.L. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Fibroblast growth factor-9 modulates the expression of myelin related proteins and multiple fibroblast growth factor receptors in developing oligodendrocytes. Cohen, R.I., Chandross, K.J. J. Neurosci. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 and FGF9 mediate mesenchymal-epithelial interactions of peritubular and Sertoli cells in the rat testis. El Ramy, R., Verot, A., Mazaud, S., Odet, F., Magre, S., Le Magueresse-Battistoni, B. J. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. FGF9: a motoneuron survival factor expressed by medial thoracic and sacral motoneurons. Garcès, A., Nishimune, H., Philippe, J.M., Pettmann, B., deLapeyrière, O. J. Neurosci. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. A hydrophobic region locating at the center of fibroblast growth factor-9 is crucial for its secretion. Miyakawa, K., Hatsuzawa, K., Kurokawa, T., Asada, M., Kuroiwa, T., Imamura, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Structure/activity relationships of a homologous series of surfactants (nonyl-phenoxypolyethoxyethanols) on rat vaginal bioelectric activity over the oestrous cycle. Levin, R.J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Fibroblast growth factor receptors and their ligands in the adult rat kidney. Cancilla, B., Davies, A., Cauchi, J.A., Risbridger, G.P., Bertram, J.F. Kidney Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Spatially restricted expression of fibroblast growth factor-10 mRNA in the rat brain. Hattori, Y., Yamasaki, M., Konishi, M., Itoh, N. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Fibroblast growth factors-5 and -9 distinctly regulate expression and function of the gap junction protein connexin43 in cultured astroglial cells from different brain regions. Reuss, B., Hertel, M., Werner, S., Unsicker, K. Glia (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression and possible function of fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) and its cognate receptors FGFR2 and FGFR3 in postnatal and adult retina. Cinaroglu, A., Ozmen, Y., Ozdemir, A., Ozcan, F., Ergorul, C., Cayirlioglu, P., Hicks, D., Bugra, K. J. Neurosci. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
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