The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

FGF9  -  fibroblast growth factor 9

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: FGF-9, Fibroblast growth factor 9, GAF, Glia-activating factor, HBFG-9, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of FGF9


Psychiatry related information on FGF9

  • METHODS: GAF, BPRS, DAS (at baseline and after 6 months), LQL and VSSS (at follow-up only) were administered to 194 patients attending the South-Verona community-based mental health service [5].
  • Psychopathology was measured using BPRS, and social functioning using GAF [6].
  • Only 5.1% of male patients with psychoactive substance use disorder and disciplinary problems in school had a non-negative outcome, while as many as 76.6% of female patients without psychoactive substance use and a DSM-IV GAF of > or = 40 at hospitalization had a non-negative outcome at 15 years follow-up [7].
  • Recommendation of psychotherapy was predicted by the absence of a personality disorder and high GAF scores, but not by the presence of a psychiatric syndrome [8].
  • BN+AD+ women were more likely than BN+AD- women to have drug dependence, conduct disorder, and suicidality, and were more likely to have major depression, lower GAF scores, and to engage in unsafe sex than both BN+AD- and BN-AD+ women [9].

High impact information on FGF9

  • Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) induces the transcription of the gene encoding a guanylate binding protein by activating a latent cytoplasmic factor, GAF (gamma-activated factor) [10].
  • The time course of activation of GAF was different in fibroblasts and HeLa cells and correlated well with IFN-gamma-induced transcriptional activation in both cell types [11].
  • Crystal structure of the tandem GAF domains from a cyanobacterial adenylyl cyclase: modes of ligand binding and dimerization [12].
  • Constructs containing an Asp/Ala mutation in either GAF domain still showed positive cooperative cAMP stimulation but with reduced Hill coefficients [13].
  • We report here that prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) induces expression of FGF-9, which promotes endometriotic stromal cell proliferation, through the EP3 receptor-activated protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta) signaling pathway [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of FGF9


Biological context of FGF9


Anatomical context of FGF9

  • FGF9 is an autocrine and paracrine prostatic growth factor expressed by prostatic stromal cells [20].
  • FGF9 is an abundant secreted growth factor that can act as both a paracrine mitogen for epithelial cells and an autocrine mitogen for stromal cells [20].
  • We demonstrated that FGF9 is expressed in a subpopulation of the RPE, as well as photoreceptors and other neurons of the retina [21].
  • Synoviocytes but not chondrocytes from affected patients express FGF9 in culture [2].
  • Expression at the mRNA level of FGF9, FGFR3, and collagen type IIa is found in these cells, but not in skin fibroblasts from afflicted or healthy individuals [1].

Associations of FGF9 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of FGF9

  • Interestingly, binding of both mutant receptors to FGF9 was notably enhanced and implicates FGF9 as a potential pathophysiological ligand for mutant FGFRs in mediating craniosynostosis [24].
  • Evidence that beta-catenin and TCFs regulate FGF9 expression in several epithelial cell lines was obtained [25].
  • These studies provide evidence to demonstrate, for the first time, that a novel signaling cascade involving phospholipase Cgamma, calcium, mTOR, and S6K1 is activated by FGF9 in a receptor-specific manner [26].

Other interactions of FGF9

  • Analysis of FGF8 and FGF9 binding to chimeric receptors showed that a broad region spanning Ig domain II and sequences further N-terminal determines binding specificity for these ligands [27].
  • Since receptor activation can result in its movement to a perinuclear localization, an alternative explanation for the redistribution of FGFR-3-IIIb could be different degrees of activation by a ligand (FGF1 or FGF9) [28].
  • Synovial chondromatosis: the possible role of FGF 9 and FGF receptor 3 in its pathology [2].
  • The results from previous studies for these receptors imply that FGF9 or FGF4 could act as ligands [21].
  • In contrast to FGF2, which blocked chondrocytic differentiation, FGF9 had no effect on differentiation but inhibited terminal differentiation [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FGF9


  1. Role of FGF9 and FGF receptor 3 in osteochondroma formation. Robinson, D., Hasharoni, A., Oganesian, A., Sandell, L.J., Yayon, A., Nevo, Z. Orthopedics. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Synovial chondromatosis: the possible role of FGF 9 and FGF receptor 3 in its pathology. Robinson, D., Hasharoni, A., Evron, Z., Segal, M., Nevo, Z. International journal of experimental pathology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression and mitogenic effect of fibroblast growth factor-9 in human endometriotic implant is regulated by aberrant production of estrogen. Wing, L.Y., Chuang, P.C., Wu, M.H., Chen, H.M., Tsai, S.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Fibroblast growth factor-9 (glia-activating factor) stimulates proliferation and production of glial fibrillary acidic protein in human gliomas either in the presence or in the absence of the endogenous growth factor expression. Miyagi, N., Kato, S., Terasaki, M., Aoki, T., Sugita, Y., Yamaguchi, M., Shigemori, M., Morimatsu, M. Oncol. Rep. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Multivariate analysis of outcome of mental health care using graphical chain models. The South-Verona Outcome Project 1. Ruggeri, M., Biggeri, A., Rucci, P., Tansella, M. Psychological medicine. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Validation of psychiatric patients' statements on coercive measures. Poulsen, H.D., Engberg, M. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. A long-term follow-up study of adolescent psychiatric in-patients. Part IV. Predictors of a non-negative outcome. Kjelsberg, E. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. What patient characteristics make therapists recommend psychodynamic psychotherapy or other treatment forms? Svanborg, P., Gustavsson, n.u.l.l., Weinryb, R.M. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Lifetime psychiatric comorbidity of alcohol dependence and bulimia nervosa in women. Duncan, A.E., Neuman, R.J., Kramer, J.R., Kuperman, S., Hesselbrock, V.M., Bucholz, K.K. Drug and alcohol dependence. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Activation of transcription by IFN-gamma: tyrosine phosphorylation of a 91-kD DNA binding protein. Shuai, K., Schindler, C., Prezioso, V.R., Darnell, J.E. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Cytoplasmic activation of GAF, an IFN-gamma-regulated DNA-binding factor. Decker, T., Lew, D.J., Mirkovitch, J., Darnell, J.E. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Crystal structure of the tandem GAF domains from a cyanobacterial adenylyl cyclase: modes of ligand binding and dimerization. Martinez, S.E., Bruder, S., Schultz, A., Zheng, N., Schultz, J.E., Beavo, J.A., Linder, J.U. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. The cyanobacterial tandem GAF domains from the cyaB2 adenylyl cyclase signal via both cAMP-binding sites. Bruder, S., Linder, J.U., Martinez, S.E., Zheng, N., Beavo, J.A., Schultz, J.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Prostaglandin E2 Induces Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 via EP3-Dependent Protein Kinase C{delta} and Elk-1 Signaling. Chuang, P.C., Sun, H.S., Chen, T.M., Tsai, S.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Nuclear factor kappa B is involved in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated induction of interferon regulatory factor-1 and GAS/GAF DNA-binding in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Liu, L., Paul, A., MacKenzie, C.J., Bryant, C., Graham, A., Plevin, R. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Nitrogen fixation: key genetic regulatory mechanisms. Martinez-Argudo, I., Little, R., Shearer, N., Johnson, P., Dixon, R. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Tetracycline and 13-cis-retinoic acid inhibit production and activity of granulocyte activating factor (GAF) from Propionibacterium acnes. Pulverer, G., Ko, H.L., Beuth, J., Roszkowski, W. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Crystal structure of fibroblast growth factor 9 reveals regions implicated in dimerization and autoinhibition. Plotnikov, A.N., Eliseenkova, A.V., Ibrahimi, O.A., Shriver, Z., Sasisekharan, R., Lemmon, M.A., Mohammadi, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of fibroblast growth factor 8, fibroblast growth factor 9 and keratinocyte growth factor on multiplication and locomotion in human teratocarcinoma cells in vitro. Granerus, M., Engström, W. Anticancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. FGF9 is an autocrine and paracrine prostatic growth factor expressed by prostatic stromal cells. Giri, D., Ropiquet, F., Ittmann, M. J. Cell. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Human RPE cells express the FGFR2IIIc and FGFR3IIIc splice variants and FGF9 as a potential high affinity ligand. Alizadeh, M., Miyamura, N., Handa, J.T., Hjelmeland, L.M. Exp. Eye Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Structure of fibroblast growth factor 9 shows a symmetric dimer with unique receptor- and heparin-binding interfaces. Hecht , H.J., Adar , R., Hofmann , B., Bogin , O., Weich , H., Yayon , A. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Fibroblast growth factor-9 is an endometrial stromal growth factor. Tsai, S.J., Wu, M.H., Chen, H.M., Chuang, P.C., Wing, L.Y. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Proline to arginine mutations in FGF receptors 1 and 3 result in Pfeiffer and Muenke craniosynostosis syndromes through enhancement of FGF binding affinity. Ibrahimi, O.A., Zhang, F., Eliseenkova, A.V., Linhardt, R.J., Mohammadi, M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Fibroblast growth factor 9 has oncogenic activity and is a downstream target of Wnt signaling in ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas. Hendrix, N.D., Wu, R., Kuick, R., Schwartz, D.R., Fearon, E.R., Cho, K.R. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. The mammalian target of rapamycin-p70 ribosomal S6 kinase but not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling is responsible for fibroblast growth factor-9-induced cell proliferation. Wing, L.Y., Chen, H.M., Chuang, P.C., Wu, M.H., Tsai, S.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Mapping ligand binding domains in chimeric fibroblast growth factor receptor molecules. Multiple regions determine ligand binding specificity. Chellaiah, A., Yuan, W., Chellaiah, M., Ornitz, D.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Altered intracellular localization of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 in human breast cancer. Zammit, C., Barnard, R., Gomm, J., Coope, R., Shousha, S., Coombes, C., Johnston, C. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Differential effects of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 9 and FGF2 on proliferation, differentiation and terminal differentiation of chondrocytic cells in vitro. Weksler, N.B., Lunstrum, G.P., Reid, E.S., Horton, W.A. Biochem. J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Expression and synthesis of fibroblast growth factor-9 in human gammadelta T-lymphocytes. Response to isopentenyl pyrophosphate and TGF-beta1/IL-15. Workalemahu, G., Foerster, M., Kroegel, C. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities