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Gene Review

GP5  -  glycoprotein V (platelet)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CD42d, GPV, Glycoprotein 5, Platelet glycoprotein V
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Disease relevance of GP5

  • Association between GPV and GPIb-IX has been suggested by the finding that both proteins are deficient in the Bernard-Soulier syndrome, a bleeding disorder characterized by giant platelets and defective interaction with von Willebrand factor [1].
  • A series of 302 archival samples, including 150 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and 152 CIN lesions, were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for p16(INK4A) and HPV testing using PCR with three primer sets (MY09/11, GP5/GP6, SPF) [2].
  • Thus, GPV seems to be targeted in gold-induced autoimmune thrombocytopenia [3].
  • By investigating 38 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients on gold therapy, 10 with profound thrombocytopenia and 28 nonthrombocytopenic controls, we showed that in all 10 patients with thrombocytopenia, the platelet autoantibodies preferentially targeted GPV but the presence of gold was not required for their reactivity [3].
  • To study the role of glycoprotein (GP) V within the GPIb receptor complex, we transfected the GPV subunit gene into a hematopoietic cell line that constitutively expresses the other three subunits (human erythroleukemia [HEL] cells) [4].

High impact information on GP5

  • Binding of antibodies to the GPIbalpha N-terminal domain was decreased, whereas GPIX and GPV were normally detected [5].
  • We recently reported that positively charged, membrane-proximal sequences within cytoplasmic domains of GPIbbeta and GPV of GPIb-IX-V bind calmodulin [6].
  • Autoantibodies recognizing GPV were not seen in the 28 nonthrombocytopenic control RA patients [3].
  • The genes coding for GPIb-IX and GPV are useful tools to study megakaryocytopoiesis and for tissue-specific or conditional expression in mature MK and platelets [7].
  • DNA sequence analysis showed normal sequence for GPIbalpha, GPIX, and GPV [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of GP5

  • Glycoprotein V (GPV) is a major platelet membrane 82-kDa glycoprotein, missing in the Bernard-Soulier syndrome, that is cleaved when platelets are treated with thrombin [9].
  • In the present report, we demonstrate that botrocetin does not induce agglutination of formalin-fixed platelets from a patient with Bernard-Soulier syndrome congenitally lacking GPIb and GPIX as well as GPV, a finding similar to that shown with ristocetin [10].
  • We conclude that quinidine purpura is associated with autoantibody directed against platelet GPV [11].

Biological context of GP5

  • These results demonstrate that GPV is cleaved upon agonist-induced platelet activation and show that ADAM17 is the major enzyme mediating this process [12].
  • The entire amino acid sequence of GPV was deduced from the cDNA and genomic sequences [9].
  • The single-copy gene for GPV is contained within 6.5 kilobase pairs (kb) of genomic sequence and has a simple structure with a single intron of 958 base pairs in the 5'-untranslated sequence; the coding sequence is contained within a single exon [9].
  • We report the cloning and sequencing of the GPV cDNA and gene obtained by a combination of polymerase chain reaction amplification of platelet mRNA and genomic library screening [9].
  • Both genes were found on the long arm of chromosome 3, but at distinct sites, the GPV gene on 3 band q29 and the GP IX gene on 3 band q21 [13].

Anatomical context of GP5

  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis on RNAs from cells of different hematopoietic origins revealed that GPV was specifically transcribed from platelets and from cells of the megakaryocytic lineage (megakaryocytes, HEL cells) [9].
  • In a megakaryocytic cell line UT-7, GPV antigen increased after treatment with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) [14].
  • Flow cytometric and immunohistochemical analysis indicated that GPV was detected on the surface and in the cytoplasm of only the megakaryocytes in bone marrow aspirates [14].
  • HPV DNA presence was investigated in the respective exfoliated oral mucosa cells by nested PCR (nPCR: MY09-MY11/GP5-GP6) [15].
  • First, although only the GPIb alpha subunit of this putative complex is known to be directly linked to the platelet cytoskeleton via actin-binding protein, cytochalasin B inhibited the ADP/epinephrine-, cathepsin G-, and TRAP-induced decrease in platelet surface GPV [16].

Associations of GP5 with chemical compounds

  • These data show that the leucine-rich glycoproteins GPV and GPIb-IX form a noncovalent complex in the platelet membrane [1].
  • Treatment of digitonin immunopreciptates with the nonionic detergent, Nonidet P-40, released GPV from anti-GPIb and anti-GPIX mAb precipitates and GPIb-IX from the anti-GPV mAb precipitate [1].
  • As quantified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis in whole blood, aspirin, but not its metabolite salicylic acid, induced dose-dependent shedding of human and murine GPIbalpha and GPV from the platelet surface, whereas other glycoproteins remained unaffected by this treatment [17].
  • Glycoprotein V (GPV) is a membrane-associated, 82 Kd platelet glycoprotein that is hydrolyzed during thrombin activation to yield 69 Kd fragment [18].
  • 3. Two of the major pathological oligosaccharides, GP5 and GP6, were purified by chromatography on charcoal/Celite and Sephadex G-25 [19].

Physical interactions of GP5

  • This study also provides two additional lines of support for the recent report that GPV is noncovalently complexed with GPIb and GPIX in the platelet surface membrane [16].

Regulatory relationships of GP5


Other interactions of GP5

  • Removal of the Mr 45,000 amino-terminal part of GPIb alpha by treatment with elastase did not abrogate association of GPV with GPIb-IX, showing that the leucine-rich repeat sequences in GPIb alpha are not required for complex formation [1].
  • Here we report that GPV and GPIb-IX are coprecipitated by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against GPV, GPIb, or GPIX when platelets are solubilized in the mild detergent, digitonin [1].
  • GPV may play a role in the interaction of platelets with von Willebrand factor [1].
  • MoAbs against GPIa GPIb alpha, GPV, P-selectin, and the alpha-chain of the vitronectin receptor did not react with CD34+ cells [21].
  • The experiments with TRAP showed that activation of the seven-transmembrane domain thrombin receptor can result in translocation of GPIb, GPIX, and GPV to the SCCS independently of the GPIb-mediated pathway of thrombin-induced platelet activation [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GP5

  • Biotinylated fragments of GPV were detected by immunoprecipitation in the supernatant of washed mouse platelets, and the expression level of GPIbalpha was decreased in these platelets as measured by Western blot analysis [17].
  • Thrombin cleavage site was determined to be located at the C-terminal region of GPV by analysis of the products separated by sizing and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography [18].
  • A single transcript of 4.5 kb for GPV was detected in human platelets by Northern blot analysis [9].
  • The transcriptional start site of the GPV gene was defined by "anchored" PCR and primer extension [13].
  • By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), GPV cDNA was amplified from mRNA of platelets and megakaryocytic cell lines [14].


  1. Glycoproteins V and Ib-IX form a noncovalent complex in the platelet membrane. Modderman, P.W., Admiraal, L.G., Sonnenberg, A., von dem Borne, A.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. p16(INK4A) expression is related to grade of cin and high-risk human papillomavirus but does not predict virus clearance after conization or disease outcome. Branca, M., Ciotti, M., Santini, D., Di Bonito, L., Giorgi, C., Benedetto, A., Paba, P., Favalli, C., Costa, S., Agarossi, A., Alderisio, M., Syrjänen, K. Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Glycoprotein V: the predominant target antigen in gold-induced autoimmune thrombocytopenia. Garner, S.F., Campbell, K., Metcalfe, P., Keidan, J., Huiskes, E., Dong, J.F., López, J.A., Ouwehand, W.H. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Human platelet glycoprotein V: its role in enhancing expression of the glycoprotein Ib receptor. Calverley, D.C., Yagi, M., Stray, S.M., Roth, G.J. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Impaired megakaryocytopoiesis in type 2B von Willebrand disease with severe thrombocytopenia. Nurden, P., Debili, N., Vainchenker, W., Bobe, R., Bredoux, R., Corvazier, E., Combrie, R., Fressinaud, E., Meyer, D., Nurden, A.T., Enouf, J. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Interaction of calmodulin with the cytoplasmic domain of platelet glycoprotein VI. Andrews, R.K., Suzuki-Inoue, K., Shen, Y., Tulasne, D., Watson, S.P., Berndt, M.C. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The alpha(IIb)beta(3) integrin and GPIb-V-IX complex identify distinct stages in the maturation of CD34(+) cord blood cells to megakaryocytes. Lepage, A., Leboeuf, M., Cazenave, J.P., de la Salle, C., Lanza, F., Uzan, G. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. The critical interaction of glycoprotein (GP) IBbeta with GPIX-a genetic cause of Bernard-Soulier syndrome. Kenny, D., Morateck, P.A., Gill, J.C., Montgomery, R.R. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding the human platelet glycoprotein V. A member of the leucine-rich glycoprotein family cleaved during thrombin-induced platelet activation. Lanza, F., Morales, M., de La Salle, C., Cazenave, J.P., Clemetson, K.J., Shimomura, T., Phillips, D.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Enhanced botrocetin-induced type IIB von Willebrand factor binding to platelet glycoprotein Ib initiates hyperagglutination of normal platelets. Nishio, K., Fujimura, Y., Niinomi, K., Takahashi, Y., Yoshioka, A., Fukui, H., Usami, Y., Titani, K., Ruggeri, Z.M., Zimmerman, T.S. Am. J. Hematol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Quinidine purpura: evidence that glycoprotein V is a target platelet antigen. Stricker, R.B., Shuman, M.A. Blood (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Evidence for a role of ADAM17 (TACE) in the regulation of platelet glycoprotein V. Rabie, T., Strehl, A., Ludwig, A., Nieswandt, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Human platelet glycoproteins V and IX: mapping of two leucine-rich glycoprotein genes to chromosome 3 and analysis of structures. Yagi, M., Edelhoff, S., Disteche, C.M., Roth, G.J. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of platelet membrane glycoprotein V in human megakaryocytes and megakaryocytic cell lines: a study using a novel monoclonal antibody against GPV. Takafuta, T., Fujimura, K., Kawano, H., Noda, M., Fujimoto, T., Oda, K., Shimomura, T., Kuramoto, A. Thromb. Haemost. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. H3 and H3.3 histone mRNA amounts and ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma and leukoplakia. Piscopo, M., Campisi, G., Colella, G., Bilancione, M., Caccamo, S., Di Liberto, C., Tartaro, G.P., Giovannelli, L., Pulcrano, G., Fucci, L. Oral diseases. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. The platelet surface expression of glycoprotein V is regulated by two independent mechanisms: proteolysis and a reversible cytoskeletal-mediated redistribution to the surface-connected canalicular system. Michelson, A.D., Benoit, S.E., Furman, M.I., Barnard, M.R., Nurden, P., Nurden, A.T. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Aspirin induces platelet receptor shedding via ADAM17 (TACE). Aktas, B., Pozgajova, M., Bergmeier, W., Sunnarborg, S., Offermanns, S., Lee, D., Wagner, D.D., Nieswandt, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Rapid purification and characterization of human platelet glycoprotein V: the amino acid sequence contains leucine-rich repetitive modules as in glycoprotein Ib. Shimomura, T., Fujimura, K., Maehama, S., Takemoto, M., Oda, K., Fujimoto, T., Oyama, R., Suzuki, M., Ichihara-Tanaka, K., Titani, K. Blood (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Hepatic storage of oligosaccharides and glycolipids in a cat affected with GM1 gangliosidosis. Holmes, E.W., O'Brien, J.S. Biochem. J. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus glycoprotein 5 (GP5) in stably expressing cells. Lee, C., Rogan, D., Erickson, L., Zhang, J., Yoo, D. Virus Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. The value of flow cytometric analysis of platelet glycoprotein expression of CD34+ cells measured under conditions that prevent P-selectin-mediated binding of platelets. Dercksen, M.W., Weimar, I.S., Richel, D.J., Breton-Gorius, J., Vainchenker, W., Slaper-Cortenbach, C.M., Pinedo, H.M., von dem Borne, A.E., Gerritsen, W.R., van der Schoot, C.E. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
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