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Gene Review

CTSG  -  cathepsin G

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CATG, CG, Cathepsin G
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Disease relevance of CTSG


Psychiatry related information on CTSG

  • These findings indicate that cathepsin G is capable of cleaving the beta-amyloid precursor protein to liberate the free NH2-terminus of the A beta protein and may have access to areas where this material is deposited in Alzheimer's disease [5].
  • In primates at least, neutralization of the biological effects of CG during this critical period results in a reduction of blood progesterone levels and the interruption of pregnancy [6].

High impact information on CTSG


Chemical compound and disease context of CTSG


Biological context of CTSG


Anatomical context of CTSG


Associations of CTSG with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of CTSG

  • In summary, neutrophil cathepsin G modulates the platelet surface expression of the GPIb-IX complex both by proteolysis of the vWF binding site on GPIb alpha and by a cytoskeletal-mediated redistribution of the remainder of the complex [3].
  • The protein is secreted rather than stored in the cell, has a similar size to plasma alpha 1 ACh (68 kDa) and can complex with human cathepsin G [25].
  • Cathepsin G reaches the subendothelial matrix through an increase in cell permeability and injures endothelial cell morphology by detaching matrix-bound PAI-1 [26].
  • Human endothelial cell damage by neutrophil-derived cathepsin G. Role of cytoskeleton rearrangement and matrix-bound plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [26].
  • TNF-alpha and PAF alone induced modest (two- to threefold) increases in cell surface-bound cathepsin G, but exhibited a marked dose- and time-dependent priming effect for subsequent chemoattractant-induced responses (up to 15- to 25-fold increases in cell surface expression) [27].

Enzymatic interactions of CTSG


Regulatory relationships of CTSG


Other interactions of CTSG


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CTSG

  • Electrophoretic, Western blotting, and amino-terminal sequence analyses revealed that cathepsin G cleaves factor V at several sites (Phe1031, Leu1447, Tyr1518, and potentially Tyr696), ultimately generating an amino-terminal 103 kDa heavy chain and a carboxy-terminal 80 kDa light chain (FVaCG) [39].
  • The distribution of cathepsin G-containing cells was examined by immunohistochemistry in the temporal cortex of both Alzheimer's and aged control samples [5].
  • Twenty-three sera negative for ANCA were also tested for antibodies to BPI and cathepsin G using ELISA [40].
  • This low activity of cathepsin G might be explained by the presence of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, which was detected by laser nephlometric immunoassay and immunoblot analysis [41].
  • Following incubation of sheep CG and NE with human alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin and alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor, complexes with apparent molecular masses of 89 and 81 kDa respectively were observed by SDS-PAGE [42].


  1. Characterization of polymorphic structure of cathepsin G gene: role in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Herrmann, S.M., Funke-Kaiser, H., Schmidt-Petersen, K., Nicaud, V., Gautier-Bertrand, M., Evans, A., Kee, F., Arveiler, D., Morrison, C., Orzechowski, H.D., Elbaz, A., Amarenco, P., Cambien, F., Paul, M. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. The human neutrophil serine proteinases, elastase and cathepsin G, can mediate glomerular injury in vivo. Johnson, R.J., Couser, W.G., Alpers, C.E., Vissers, M., Schulze, M., Klebanoff, S.J. J. Exp. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Neutrophil cathepsin G modulates the platelet surface expression of the glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX complex by proteolysis of the von Willebrand factor binding site on GPIb alpha and by a cytoskeletal-mediated redistribution of the remainder of the complex. LaRosa, C.A., Rohrer, M.J., Benoit, S.E., Barnard, M.R., Michelson, A.D. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Myeloid leukemia with promyelocytic features in transgenic mice expressing hCG-NuMA-RARalpha. Sukhai, M.A., Wu, X., Xuan, Y., Zhang, T., Reis, P.P., Dubé, K., Rego, E.M., Bhaumik, M., Bailey, D.J., Wells, R.A., Kamel-Reid, S., Pandolfi, P.P. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Cathepsin G: localization in human cerebral cortex and generation of amyloidogenic fragments from the beta-amyloid precursor protein. Savage, M.J., Iqbal, M., Loh, T., Trusko, S.P., Scott, R., Siman, R. Neuroscience (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Human chorionic gonadotropin and maternal recognition of pregnancy. Ross, G.T. Ciba Found. Symp. (1978) [Pubmed]
  7. Immunocytochemical identification of azurophilic and specific granule markers in the giant granules of Chediak-Higashi neutrophils. Rausch, P.G., Pryzwansky, K.B., Spitznagel, J.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  8. Proteinase-activated receptors: transducers of proteinase-mediated signaling in inflammation and immune response. Steinhoff, M., Buddenkotte, J., Shpacovitch, V., Rattenholl, A., Moormann, C., Vergnolle, N., Luger, T.A., Hollenberg, M.D. Endocr. Rev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Serine protease cathepsin G regulates adhesion-dependent neutrophil effector functions by modulating integrin clustering. Raptis, S.Z., Shapiro, S.D., Simmons, P.M., Cheng, A.M., Pham, C.T. Immunity (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of human neutrophil-derived cathepsin G and azurocidin/CAP37 as chemoattractants for mononuclear cells and neutrophils. Chertov, O., Ueda, H., Xu, L.L., Tani, K., Murphy, W.J., Wang, J.M., Howard, O.M., Sayers, T.J., Oppenheim, J.J. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Inhibition of neutrophil cathepsin G by oxidized mucus proteinase inhibitor. Effect of heparin. Boudier, C., Cadène, M., Bieth, J.G. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Active site mapping of the serine proteases human leukocyte elastase, cathepsin G, porcine pancreatic elastase, rat mast cell proteases I and II. Bovine chymotrypsin A alpha, and Staphylococcus aureus protease V-8 using tripeptide thiobenzyl ester substrates. Harper, J.W., Cook, R.R., Roberts, C.J., McLaughlin, B.J., Powers, J.C. Biochemistry (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. In vitro killing of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Capnocytophaga spp. by human neutrophil cathepsin G and elastase. Miyasaki, K.T., Bodeau, A.L. Infect. Immun. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Inhibition of human neutrophil elastase by ICI 200,355. Sommerhoff, C.P., Krell, R.D., Williams, J.L., Gomes, B.C., Strimpler, A.M., Nadel, J.A. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. SC-39026, a specific human neutrophil elastase inhibitor. Nakao, A., Partis, R.A., Jung, G.P., Mueller, R.A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. A cluster of hematopoietic serine protease genes is found on the same chromosomal band as the human alpha/delta T-cell receptor locus. Hanson, R.D., Hohn, P.A., Popescu, N.C., Ley, T.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Heparin cofactor II-proteinase reaction products exhibit neutrophil chemoattractant activity. Hoffman, M., Pratt, C.W., Brown, R.L., Church, F.C. Blood (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Interaction of heparin cofactor II with neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G. Pratt, C.W., Tobin, R.B., Church, F.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Thrombospondin 1 is a tight-binding competitive inhibitor of neutrophil cathepsin G. Determination of the kinetic mechanism of inhibition and localization of cathepsin G binding to the thrombospondin 1 type 3 repeats. Hogg, P.J., Owensby, D.A., Chesterman, C.N. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. The platelet surface expression of glycoprotein V is regulated by two independent mechanisms: proteolysis and a reversible cytoskeletal-mediated redistribution to the surface-connected canalicular system. Michelson, A.D., Benoit, S.E., Furman, M.I., Barnard, M.R., Nurden, P., Nurden, A.T. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Elastase and cathepsin G of human monocytes. Quantification of cellular content, release in response to stimuli, and heterogeneity in elastase-mediated proteolytic activity. Campbell, E.J., Silverman, E.K., Campbell, M.A. J. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Cathepsin G in human mononuclear phagocytes: comparisons between monocytes and U937 monocyte-like cells. Senior, R.M., Campbell, E.J. J. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Heparin protects cathepsin G against inhibition by protein proteinase inhibitors. Ermolieff, J., Boudier, C., Laine, A., Meyer, B., Bieth, J.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Methionine sulfoxide and proteolytic cleavage contribute to the inactivation of cathepsin G by hypochlorous acid: an oxidative mechanism for regulation of serine proteinases by myeloperoxidase. Shao, B., Belaaouaj, A., Verlinde, C.L., Fu, X., Heinecke, J.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Production of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin by the J111 cell line. Berman, G., Burnett, D., Woo, S.L., Stockley, R.A. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Human endothelial cell damage by neutrophil-derived cathepsin G. Role of cytoskeleton rearrangement and matrix-bound plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Iacoviello, L., Kolpakov, V., Salvatore, L., Amore, C., Pintucci, G., de Gaetano, G., Donati, M.B. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Inducible binding of bioactive cathepsin G to the cell surface of neutrophils. A novel mechanism for mediating extracellular catalytic activity of cathepsin G. Owen, C.A., Campbell, M.A., Boukedes, S.S., Campbell, E.J. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Susceptibility of baboon aorta elastin to proteolysis. Desfontaines, L., Hornebeck, W., Wei, S.M., Robert, L., Lafuma, C. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Neutrophils can generate their activator neutrophil-activating peptide 2 by proteolytic cleavage of platelet-derived connective tissue-activating peptide III. Brandt, E., Van Damme, J., Flad, H.D. Cytokine (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Proteolysis of C3 on U937 cell plasma membranes. Purification of cathepsin G. Maison, C.M., Villiers, C.L., Colomb, M.G. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Cathepsin-G and leukocyte elastase inactivate human tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin. Scuderi, P., Nez, P.A., Duerr, M.L., Wong, B.J., Valdez, C.M. Cell. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  32. Characteristics of the chemotactic activity of heparin cofactor II proteolysis products. Hoffman, M., Pratt, C.W., Corbin, L.W., Church, F.C. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Differential and additive effects of platelet-derived chemokines on monocyte arrest on inflamed endothelium under flow conditions. Baltus, T., von Hundelshausen, P., Mause, S.F., Buhre, W., Rossaint, R., Weber, C. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Rapid inactivation of stromal cell-derived factor-1 by cathepsin G associated with lymphocytes. Delgado, M.B., Clark-Lewis, I., Loetscher, P., Langen, H., Thelen, M., Baggiolini, M., Wolf, M. Eur. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Human neutrophil elastase proteolytically activates the platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3 through cleavage of the carboxyl terminus of the alphaIIb subunit heavy chain. Involvement in the potentiation of platelet aggregation. Si-Tahar, M., Pidard, D., Balloy, V., Moniatte, M., Kieffer, N., Van Dorsselaer, A., Chignard, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. High molecular mass kininogen inhibits cathepsin G-induced platelet activation by forming a complex with cathepsin G. Selim, T.E., Ghoneim, H.R., Abdel Ghaffar, H.A., Colman, R.W., Dela Cadena, R.A. Hematol. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Structure and expression of a cluster of human hematopoietic serine protease genes found on chromosome 14q11.2. Heusel, J.W., Hanson, R.D., Silverman, G.A., Ley, T.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  38. Quantum proteolytic activation of chemokine CCL15 by neutrophil granulocytes modulates mononuclear cell adhesiveness. Richter, R., Bistrian, R., Escher, S., Forssmann, W.G., Vakili, J., Henschler, R., Spodsberg, N., Frimpong-Boateng, A., Forssmann, U. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  39. Proteolysis of factor V by cathepsin G and elastase indicates that cleavage at Arg1545 optimizes cofactor function by facilitating factor Xa binding. Camire, R.M., Kalafatis, M., Tracy, P.B. Biochemistry (1998) [Pubmed]
  40. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and cathepsin G are the major antigenic targets of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies in systemic sclerosis. Khanna, D., Aggarwal, A., Bhakuni, D.S., Dayal, R., Misra, R. J. Rheumatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  41. Cathepsin G and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin in the local host reaction to loosening of total hip prostheses. Takagi, M., Konttinen, Y.T., Santavirta, S., Kangaspunta, P., Suda, A., Rokkanen, P. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (1995) [Pubmed]
  42. Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequence of sheep neutrophil cathepsin G and elastase. Mistry, R., Snashall, P.D., Totty, N., Guz, A., Tetley, T.D. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1999) [Pubmed]
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