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Gene Review

Aif1  -  allograft inflammatory factor 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: AIF-1, Allograft inflammatory factor 1, BART-1, Bart1, Iba1, ...
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Disease relevance of Aif1


High impact information on Aif1

  • Activated microglia and macrophages were identified morphologically and by expression of ED1 and allograft inhibitory factor-1 (AIF-1), and differentiated by their morphological phenotype [6].
  • MRF-1 levels in microglia purified from cerebral cortex also upregulated in the presence of 5 DIV granule cells [7].
  • One of the genes isolated was microglial response factor-1 (mrf-1), which encoded a sequence of 177 amino acids with a single EF-hand calcium-binding motif [7].
  • In the developing cerebellum in vivo, levels of mrf-1 mRNA transiently increased in the early postnatal stages, reaching a peak at P7 when cerebellar neurons and astrocytes undergo extensive apoptosis [7].
  • Upregulation of a new microglial gene, mrf-1, in response to programmed neuronal cell death and degeneration [7].

Biological context of Aif1


Anatomical context of Aif1


Associations of Aif1 with chemical compounds

  • MRF-1 release was enhanced by Ca(2+)-ionophore A23187 (sixfold), thapsigargin (threefold); however, it was not enhanced by glutamate or lipopolysaccharide [13].
  • Moreover, the ATP-stimulated MRF-1 release was inhibited by a P2X(7) selective antagonist, oxidized ATP (oATP), and also under a Ca(2+)-free condition [13].
  • The macrophage cell line expressed a certain level of endogenous AIF-1, which could be enhanced by pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha and suppressed by anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate [11].
  • These results indicate that ATP selectively suppresses MRF-1 synthesis at the transcription level via Ca(2+) influx through P2X(7) receptors [14].
  • Dexamethasone prevented or abolished local expression of EMAP II and AIF-1 at days 10-16 [4].

Other interactions of Aif1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Aif1


  1. Over-expression of AIF-1 in liver allografts and peripheral blood correlates with acute rejection after transplantation in rats. Nagakawa, Y., Nomoto, S., Kato, Y., Montgomery, R.A., Williams, G.M., Klein, A.S., Sun, Z. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of microglial response factor-1 in microglia and macrophages following cerebral ischemia in the rat. Kato, H., Tanaka, S., Oikawa, T., Koike, T., Takahashi, A., Itoyama, Y. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of allograft inflammatory factor-1 and haeme oxygenase-1 in brains of rats infected with the neurotropic Borna disease virus. Herden, C., Schluesener, H.J., Richt, J.A. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of autoantigen and dexamethasone treatment on expression of endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II and allograft-inflammatory factor-1 by activated macrophages and microglial cells in lesions of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, neuritis and uveitis. Schluesener, H.J., Seid, K., Meyermann, R. Acta Neuropathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Enhanced expression of Iba1, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1, after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rat brain. Ito, D., Tanaka, K., Suzuki, S., Dembo, T., Fukuuchi, Y. Stroke (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. MHC gene related effects on microglia and macrophages in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis determine the extent of axonal injury. Storch, M.K., Weissert, R., Steffer, A., Birnbacher, R., Wallström, E., Dahlman, I., Ostensson, C.G., Linington, C., Olsson, T., Lassmann, H. Brain Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Upregulation of a new microglial gene, mrf-1, in response to programmed neuronal cell death and degeneration. Tanaka, S., Suzuki, K., Watanabe, M., Matsuda, A., Tone, S., Koike, T. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. A novel gene iba1 in the major histocompatibility complex class III region encoding an EF hand protein expressed in a monocytic lineage. Imai, Y., Ibata, I., Ito, D., Ohsawa, K., Kohsaka, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Allograft inflammatory factor-1 is expressed by macrophages in injured skeletal muscle and abrogates proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells. Kuschel, R., Deininger, M.H., Meyermann, R., Bornemann, A., Yablonka-Reuveni, Z., Schluesener, H.J. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Thapsigargin induces microglial transformation from amoeboid to ramified type in vitro. Yagi, R., Tanaka, S., Koike, T. Glia (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is crucial for the survival and pro-inflammatory activity of macrophages. Yang, Z.F., Ho, D.W., Lau, C.K., Lam, C.T., Lum, C.T., Poon, R.T., Fan, S.T. Int. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Isolation and characterization of BART-1: A novel balloon angioplasty responsive transcript in rat carotid arteries. Autieri, M.V., Prystowsky, M.B., Ohlstein, E.H. DNA Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Selective inflammatory stimulations enhance release of microglial response factor (MRF)-1 from cultured microglia. Tanaka, S., Koike, T. Glia (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. ATP selectively suppresses the synthesis of the inflammatory protein microglial response factor (MRF)-1 through Ca(2+) influx via P2X(7) receptors in cultured microglia. Kaya, N., Tanaka, S., Koike, T. Brain Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Specific expression of the cell cycle regulation proteins, GADD34 and PCNA, in the peri-infarct zone after focal cerebral ischaemia in the rat. Imai, H., Harland, J., McCulloch, J., Graham, D.I., Brown, S.M., Macrae, I.M. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Cognitive and histopathological outcome after weight-drop brain injury in the rat: influence of systemic administration of monoclonal antibodies to ICAM-1. Isaksson, J., Hillered, L., Olsson, Y. Acta Neuropathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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