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Chemical Compound Review

oATP     [[[(2R)-2-[(1R)-1-(6- aminopurin-9-yl)-2...

Synonyms: Dial-ATP, Oxo-ATP, ATP Dialdehyde, Oxidised ATP, Oxidized ATP, ...
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Disease relevance of Oxidised ATP


High impact information on Oxidised ATP


Chemical compound and disease context of Oxidised ATP

  • Purine-induced gliosis could be reversed by the non-selective P2X/P2Y receptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2', 4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS), but not by oxidized ATP (an antagonist of the P2X(7) receptor), in line with previous studies of our laboratory suggesting the involvement of a P2Y receptor subtype [10].
  • The role of lysine residues 297 and 306 in nucleoside triphosphate regulation of E. coli CTP synthase: inactivation by 2',3'-dialdehyde ATP and mutational analyses [11].

Biological context of Oxidised ATP

  • The P2Z-receptor agonist 3'-O-'(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) was twofold more potent than ATP in eliciting cytolysis, which was preceded by a sustained high intracellular Ca2+ concentration; pretreatment with oxidized ATP prevented both the increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and cell death [12].
  • The most compelling evidence has been the observation that inhibitors of ionotropic nucleotide (P2X) receptors, including periodate-oxidized ATP (oATP), attenuate a subset of endotoxin-induced effects such as activation of NF-kappaB and up-regulation of inducible NO synthase [13].
  • Ability of P2X7less FSDCs or of oxidized ATP-inhibited FSDCs to stimulate Ag-specific TH lymphocytes was severely decreased although Ag endocytosis was minimally affected [14].
  • Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis indicates that exposure to oxidized ATP or treatment with LPS reversibly decreases cell cycle progression, without increasing the percentage of apoptotic cells [15].
  • 3. The effect of BzATP on Akt phosphorylation in rat cortical astrocytes was significantly reduced by the P2X(7) receptor antagonist Brilliant Blue G and the P2X receptor antagonist iso-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid, but was unaffected by trinitrophenyl-ATP, oxidized ATP, suramin and reactive blue 2 [16].

Anatomical context of Oxidised ATP

  • The covalent blocker oxidized ATP (oATP), an inhibitor of P2X and P2Z receptors, prevented Ca2+ influx and plasma membrane depolarization, but had no effect on Ca2+ release from stores [9].
  • Pretreatment of hepatocytes with oxidized ATP, a P2z-receptor antagonist, or complexation of ATP(4-) (the agonist for the P2z-receptor) with an excess of Mg2+, prevented ATP o-induced cell death [12].
  • The effects of ATP were mimicked by submillimolar concentrations of 3-O-(4'-benzoyl)-benzoyl-benzoyl-ATP, and were inhibited by pretreatment of mast cells with a selective blocker of human and mouse P2X(7) receptor, 1[N,O-bis(5-isoquinolinesulphonyl)-N-methyl-l-tyrosyl]-4-phenylpiperazine, as well as oxidized ATP [17].
  • The effects of oxidized ATP (oATP) on responses triggered by extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATPe) were investigated in the mouse macrophage-like cell line J774 [18].
  • ATP-induced efflux of 86Rb+ from erythrocytes was inhibited by extracellular Na+ and oxidized ATP, as well as by KN-62, an antagonist specific for the human P2X7 receptor [19].

Associations of Oxidised ATP with other chemical compounds

  • 2) The effect was inhibited by oxidized ATP and the isoquinoline KN-62, two known P2X7 receptor antagonists [20].
  • The P2zR-mediated PLD activity was distinguished from phorbol ester-stimulated PLD activity because the latter was slowly activated (t(1/2) > 15 min), unaffected by oxidized ATP or KN-62, and completely inhibited by bisindolylmaleimide [21].
  • The deleterious effects of BzATP-treated microglia were prevented by nonselective P2X antagonists (PPADS and oxidized ATP) and by the more selective P2X(7) antagonist Brilliant Blue G [22].
  • Furthermore, removal of extracellular Mg2+ enhanced the ATP- and BzATP-stimulated increases in [Ca2+]i. BzATP stimulated PLD in a concentration- and time-dependent manner that could be abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+ and was inhibited by suramin, PPADS, and oxidized ATP [23].
  • Addition of P2X inhibitors, such as periodate-oxidized ATP (oATP) or pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid tetrasodium, significantly reduced LOS-induced apoptosis [24].

Gene context of Oxidised ATP

  • In addition, oxidized-ATP treatment (which inhibits P2X7) of macrophages blocks LPS-induced NO production, NF-kappaB and ERK-1/2 activation [25].
  • IL-1beta efflux from shed vesicles was enhanced by ATP stimulation and inhibited by pretreatment with the P2X(7) antagonist oxidized ATP, thus indicating a crucial involvement of the pore-forming P2X(7)R in the release of the cytokine [26].
  • P2 receptor inhibitors, including oxidized ATP, blocked NO synthase (NOSII) up-regulation and NO production induced by infection with M. tuberculosis or bacille Calmette-Guérin, or treatment with LPS or TNF-alpha [27].
  • Addition of ATP also induced a rapid loss of CD23 from the surface of wild-type DC (t(1/2 )< 120 s), and this loss was inhibited by oxidized ATP and KN-62 which are known P2X7 receptor antagonists [28].
  • Inhibition of chemokine expression in rat inflamed paws by systemic use of the antihyperalgesic oxidized ATP [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Oxidised ATP

  • To further support a role for ATP receptors in spontaneous cell death, addition to the macrophage cell cultures of oxidized ATP, a selective inhibitor of ionotropic purinergic receptors, or the ATP-hydrolysing enzyme apyrase, also reduced spontaneous death [30].


  1. Inhibition of simian virus 40 DNA replication by specific modification of T-antigen with oxidized ATP. Smale, S.T., Tjian, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Oxidized ATP protection against anthrax lethal toxin. Moayeri, M., Wickliffe, K.E., Wiggins, J.F., Leppla, S.H. Infect. Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Supersensitivity of P2X receptors in cerebrocortical cell cultures after in vitro ischemia. Wirkner, K., Köfalvi, A., Fischer, W., Günther, A., Franke, H., Gröger-Arndt, H., Nörenberg, W., Madarász, E., Vizi, E.S., Schneider, D., Sperlágh, B., Illes, P. J. Neurochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. The reaction of GroEL (cpn 60) with the ATP analogue 2',3' dialdehyde ATP. Thomson, G.J., Coggins, J.R., Price, N.C. FEBS Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Mechanisms of P2X7 receptor-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in human astrocytoma cells. Gendron, F.P., Neary, J.T., Theiss, P.M., Sun, G.Y., Gonzalez, F.A., Weisman, G.A. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. The purinergic P2Z receptor of human macrophage cells. Characterization and possible physiological role. Falzoni, S., Munerati, M., Ferrari, D., Spisani, S., Moretti, S., Di Virgilio, F. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: affinity labeling of the ATP binding site by 2', 3' -ribose oxidized ATP. Fayat, G., Fromant, M., Blanquet, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  8. Pharmacologic properties of P(2Z)/P2X(7 )receptor characterized in murine dendritic cells: role on the induction of apoptosis. Nihei, O.K., de Carvalho, A.C., Savino, W., Alves, L.A. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. An ATP-activated channel is involved in mitogenic stimulation of human T lymphocytes. Baricordi, O.R., Ferrari, D., Melchiorri, L., Chiozzi, P., Hanau, S., Chiari, E., Rubini, M., Di Virgilio, F. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. A novel gliotic P2 receptor mediating cyclooxygenase-2 induction in rat and human astrocytes. Brambilla, R., Ceruti, S., Malorni, W., Cattabeni, F., Abbracchio, M.P. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. The role of lysine residues 297 and 306 in nucleoside triphosphate regulation of E. coli CTP synthase: inactivation by 2',3'-dialdehyde ATP and mutational analyses. MacLeod, T.J., Lunn, F.A., Bearne, S.L. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. The role of a purinergic P2z receptor in calcium-dependent cell killing of isolated rat hepatocytes by extracellular adenosine triphosphate. Zoetewij, J.P., van de Water, B., de Bont, H.J., Nagelkerke, J.F. Hepatology (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Endotoxin activation of macrophages does not induce ATP release and autocrine stimulation of P2 nucleotide receptors. Beigi, R.D., Dubyak, G.R. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Mouse dendritic cells express the P2X7 purinergic receptor: characterization and possible participation in antigen presentation. Mutini, C., Falzoni, S., Ferrari, D., Chiozzi, P., Morelli, A., Baricordi, O.R., Collo, G., Ricciardi-Castagnoli, P., Di Virgilio, F. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. A role for P2X in microglial proliferation. Bianco, F., Ceruti, S., Colombo, A., Fumagalli, M., Ferrari, D., Pizzirani, C., Matteoli, M., Di Virgilio, F., Abbracchio, M.P., Verderio, C. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. P2X7 receptors stimulate AKT phosphorylation in astrocytes. Jacques-Silva, M.C., Rodnight, R., Lenz, G., Liao, Z., Kong, Q., Tran, M., Kang, Y., Gonzalez, F.A., Weisman, G.A., Neary, J.T. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Extracellular ATP induces cytokine expression and apoptosis through P2X7 receptor in murine mast cells. Bulanova, E., Budagian, V., Orinska, Z., Hein, M., Petersen, F., Thon, L., Adam, D., Bulfone-Paus, S. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Oxidized ATP. An irreversible inhibitor of the macrophage purinergic P2Z receptor. Murgia, M., Hanau, S., Pizzo, P., Rippa, M., Di Virgilio, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Extracellular ATP increases cation fluxes in human erythrocytes by activation of the P2X7 receptor. Sluyter, R., Shemon, A.N., Barden, J.A., Wiley, J.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Stress-activated protein kinase/JNK activation and apoptotic induction by the macrophage P2X7 nucleotide receptor. Humphreys, B.D., Rice, J., Kertesy, S.B., Dubyak, G.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Induction of the P2z/P2X7 nucleotide receptor and associated phospholipase D activity by lipopolysaccharide and IFN-gamma in the human THP-1 monocytic cell line. Humphreys, B.D., Dubyak, G.R. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. P2X(7) receptors on microglial cells mediate injury to cortical neurons in vitro. Skaper, S.D., Facci, L., Culbert, A.A., Evans, N.A., Chessell, I., Davis, J.B., Richardson, J.C. Glia (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. ATP-stimulated Ca2+ influx and phospholipase D activities of a rat brain-derived type-2 astrocyte cell line, RBA-2, are mediated through P2X7 receptors. Sun, S.H., Lin, L.B., Hung, A.C., Kuo, J.S. J. Neurochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Stimulation of P2X receptors enhances lipooligosaccharide-mediated apoptosis of endothelial cells. Sylte, M.J., Kuckleburg, C.J., Inzana, T.J., Bertics, P.J., Czuprynski, C.J. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Purinergic receptor regulation of LPS-induced signaling and pathophysiology. Guerra, A.N., Fisette, P.L., Pfeiffer, Z.A., Quinchia-Rios, B.H., Prabhu, U., Aga, M., Denlinger, L.C., Guadarrama, A.G., Abozeid, S., Sommer, J.A., Proctor, R.A., Bertics, P.J. J. Endotoxin Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Astrocyte-derived ATP induces vesicle shedding and IL-1 beta release from microglia. Bianco, F., Pravettoni, E., Colombo, A., Schenk, U., Möller, T., Matteoli, M., Verderio, C. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Cutting edge: purinergic signaling regulates radical-mediated bacterial killing mechanisms in macrophages through a P2X7-independent mechanism. Sikora, A., Liu, J., Brosnan, C., Buell, G., Chessel, I., Bloom, B.R. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate induces a loss of CD23 from human dendritic cells via activation of P2X7 receptors. Sluyter, R., Wiley, J.S. Int. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Inhibition of chemokine expression in rat inflamed paws by systemic use of the antihyperalgesic oxidized ATP. Fulgenzi, A., Dell'Antonio, G., Foglieni, C., Dal Cin, E., Ticozzi, P., Franzone, J.S., Ferrero, M.E. BMC Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Role of the purinergic P2Z receptor in spontaneous cell death in J774 macrophage cultures. Chiozzi, P., Murgia, M., Falzoni, S., Ferrari, D., Di Virgilio, F. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1996) [Pubmed]
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