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Gene Review

CTAG2  -  cancer/testis antigen 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Autoimmunogenic cancer/testis antigen NY-ESO-2, CAMEL, CT2, CT6.2, CT6.2a, ...
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Disease relevance of CTAG2


High impact information on CTAG2

  • Here we report the identification of the LAGE1 protein as a ligand for tumor-specific CD4(+) Treg cell clones generated from the tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) of cancer patients [6].
  • Our findings document the immunogenicity of LAGE-1 and CT7 and emphasize the power of serological analysis of cDNA expression libraries in identifying new human tumor antigens [7].
  • The LAGE2 gene is also located within this duplicated region, and a similar but unique LAGE1 gene is located just distal to the duplicated loci [8].
  • From these bulk CD4+ T cells, we have generated CD4+ T-cell clones able to recognize not only peptide-pulsed DCs but also autologous DCs loaded with the LAGE-1 ORF2 protein [1].
  • The alternative open reading frame of LAGE-1 gives rise to multiple promiscuous HLA-DR-restricted epitopes recognized by T-helper 1-type tumor-reactive CD4+ T cells [1].

Chemical compound and disease context of CTAG2


Biological context of CTAG2

  • Ovaries of 17 adult, pleuriparous, and lactating one-humped she-camels (Camelus dromedarius) were examined per rectum for uterine involution and for presence of follicles (>/=1.0 cm diameter) by real-time ultrasonography at the National Research Centre on Camel at Bikaner, India at 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days postpartum [11].
  • Scanning electron microscopic studies of the morphogenesis of the lingual lentiform and coniform papillae in camel (Camel dromedarius) [12].

Anatomical context of CTAG2


Associations of CTAG2 with chemical compounds

  • In HEECs, 5Aza-dC induced LAGE-1 expression, but TSA did not [5].
  • However, HPLC determination of the hydroquinone concentrations in cigarette smoke extracts from single Camel (33+/-4 micromol/L), Marlboro (13+/-2 micromol/L), and Carlton (<1 micromol/L) cigarettes clearly demonstrated that the potent inhibitory effects of the low-tar cigarettes could not be accounted for by either hydroquinone or catechol [16].
  • Further refinements in Camel cigarettes during the following five year period continued to emphasise the smoothness of the cigarette, utilising additives and blends which reduced throat irritation but increased or retained nicotine impact [17].
  • DESIGN: Adolescents were shown one print advertisement for each of five cigarette brands (Camel, Marlboro, Kool, Benson & Hedges, and Lucky Strike) [18].
  • However, there are considerable reservations over its use for the spectrophotometric determination of thiols because of the possibility of side reactions which generate another Ellmans based species (ESO2-) [19].

Physical interactions of CTAG2

  • Both were specific for NY-ESO-1 because neither bound to homologous LAGE-1 peptides despite 84% overall amino acid homology [3].

Other interactions of CTAG2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CTAG2


  1. The alternative open reading frame of LAGE-1 gives rise to multiple promiscuous HLA-DR-restricted epitopes recognized by T-helper 1-type tumor-reactive CD4+ T cells. Mandic, M., Almunia, C., Vicel, S., Gillet, D., Janjic, B., Coval, K., Maillere, B., Kirkwood, J.M., Zarour, H.M. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1 cancer-testis antigens are potential targets for immunotherapy in epithelial ovarian cancer. Odunsi, K., Jungbluth, A.A., Stockert, E., Qian, F., Gnjatic, S., Tammela, J., Intengan, M., Beck, A., Keitz, B., Santiago, D., Williamson, B., Scanlan, M.J., Ritter, G., Chen, Y.T., Driscoll, D., Sood, A., Lele, S., Old, L.J. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of human melanomas for expression of the human cancer-testis antigens NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1. Vaughan, H.A., Svobodova, S., Macgregor, D., Sturrock, S., Jungbluth, A.A., Browning, J., Davis, I.D., Parente, P., Chen, Y.T., Stockert, E., St Clair, F., Old, L.J., Cebon, J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Cancer-germline gene expression in pediatric solid tumors using quantitative real-time PCR. Jacobs, J.F., Brasseur, F., Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A., van de Rakt, M.W., Figdor, C.G., Adema, G.J., Hoogerbrugge, P.M., Coulie, P.G., de Vries, I.J. Int. J. Cancer (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. A new specific gene expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus detected using representational difference analysis and cDNA microarray. Kan, T., Yamasaki, S., Kondo, K., Teratani, N., Kawabe, A., Kaganoi, J., Meltzer, S.J., Imamura, M., Shimada, Y. Oncology (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Tumor-specific human CD4+ regulatory T cells and their ligands: implications for immunotherapy. Wang, H.Y., Lee, D.A., Peng, G., Guo, Z., Li, Y., Kiniwa, Y., Shevach, E.M., Wang, R.F. Immunity (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of multiple cancer/testis antigens by allogeneic antibody screening of a melanoma cell line library. Chen, Y.T., Güre, A.O., Tsang, S., Stockert, E., Jäger, E., Knuth, A., Old, L.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Multiple pathogenic and benign genomic rearrangements occur at a 35 kb duplication involving the NEMO and LAGE2 genes. Aradhya, S., Bardaro, T., Galgóczy, P., Yamagata, T., Esposito, T., Patlan, H., Ciccodicola, A., Munnich, A., Kenwrick, S., Platzer, M., D'Urso, M., Nelson, D.L. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of pre-heating on cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)-hyperthermia-induced tumour growth depression of transplantable human oesophageal cancer to nude mice. Yano, T., Nakatani, K., Watanabe, A., Nakano, H., Ohnishi, T. International journal of hyperthermia : the official journal of European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, North American Hyperthermia Group. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for detecting transitional cell carcinoma: Implications for clinical practice Laudadio J, Keane TE, Reeves HM, Savage SJ, Hoda RS, Lage JM, Wolff DJ, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC. Grossman, H.B. Urol. Oncol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Real-time ultrasonography of ovaries and breeding of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) during the early postpartum period. Vyas, S., Sahani, M.S. Anim. Reprod. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Scanning electron microscopic studies of the morphogenesis of the lingual lentiform and coniform papillae in camel (Camel dromedarius). Dougbag A el-S, n.u.l.l. Zeitschrift für mikroskopisch-anatomische Forschung. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Distributed processing by visual interneurons of crayfish brain. I. Response characteristics and synaptic interactions. Wood, H.L., Glantz, R.M. J. Neurophysiol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. Early and lage results of coronary revascularization with saphenous vein and internal mammary artery grafts. Geha, A.S., Baue, A.E. Am. J. Surg. (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Development of the Mesonephros in Camel (Camelus dromedarius). Aly, K.H. Anatomia, histologia, embryologia (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Suppression of human IL-1beta, IL-2, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha production by cigarette smoke extracts. Ouyang, Y., Virasch, N., Hao, P., Aubrey, M.T., Mukerjee, N., Bierer, B.E., Freed, B.M. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. How cigarette design can affect youth initiation into smoking: Camel cigarettes 1983-93. Wayne, G.F., Connolly, G.N. Tobacco control. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Adolescents' responses to cigarette advertisements: links between exposure, liking, and the appeal of smoking. Arnett, J.J., Terhanian, G. Tobacco control. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. HPLC determination of biologically active thiols using pre-column derivatisation with 5,5'-dithio-(bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid). Russell, J., McKeown, J.A., Hensman, C., Smith, W.E., Reglinski, J. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression profile of cancer-testis genes in 121 human colorectal cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue. Li, M., Yuan, Y.H., Han, Y., Liu, Y.X., Yan, L., Wang, Y., Gu, J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Cancer-testis antigen expression in bladder cancer. Fradet, Y., Picard, V., Bergeron, A., LaRue, H. Prog. Urol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Interleukin-2-induced, melanoma-specific T cells recognize CAMEL, an unexpected translation product of LAGE-1. Aarnoudse, C.A., van den Doel, P.B., Heemskerk, B., Schrier, P.I. Int. J. Cancer (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Serological cloning of cancer/testis antigens expressed in prostate cancer using cDNA phage surface display. Fosså, A., Alsøe, L., Crameri, R., Funderud, S., Gaudernack, G., Smeland, E.B. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Purification of camel milk lysozyme and its lytic effect on Escherichia coli and Micrococcus lysodeikticus. Duhaiman, A.S. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Frequency of NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1 expression in bladder cancer and evidence of a new NY-ESO-1 T-cell epitope in a patient with bladder cancer. Sharma, P., Gnjatic, S., Jungbluth, A.A., Williamson, B., Herr, H., Stockert, E., Dalbagni, G., Donat, S.M., Reuter, V.E., Santiago, D., Chen, Y.T., Bajorin, D.F., Old, L.J. Cancer Immun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Immunohistochemical expression of tumor antigens MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3/4, and NY-ESO-1 in squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. Hudolin, T., Juretic, A., Pasini, J., Tomas, D., Spagnoli, G.C., Heberer, M., Dimanovski, J., Kruslin, B. Urology (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Genetic relationship of Torque Teno virus (TTV) between humans and camels in United Arab Emirates (UAE). Al-Moslih, M.I., Perkins, H., Hu, Y.W. J. Med. Virol. (2007) [Pubmed]
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