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Gene Review

AQP5  -  aquaporin 5

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AQP-5, Aquaporin-5, PPKB
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Disease relevance of AQP5

  • We tested the hypothesis that orally administered human interferon-alpha (HuIFN-alpha) benefits persons with xerostomia by augmenting the production of AQP5 protein by parotid gland epithelium [1].
  • By contrast, cytoplasmic AQP5 was seen in patients with Sjögren's syndrome [2].
  • Healthy controls and patients with Mikulicz's disease or non-Sjögren's syndrome dry eye had the expected apical distribution of AQP5 in lacrimal acinar cells [2].
  • The AQP5 distribution in biopsies from patients with other dry mouth disorders, such as non-specific sialoadenitis or sarcoidosis, was similar to biopsies from control subjects [3].
  • Of all the epithelial ovarian malignant tumors, the AQP5 expression in cases with ascites volume more than 1000 ml was higher than that of ascites volume less than 500 ml (P < 0.05) [4].

High impact information on AQP5


Chemical compound and disease context of AQP5


Biological context of AQP5


Anatomical context of AQP5


Associations of AQP5 with chemical compounds

  • Attachment of a FLAG epitope to the NH2 terminus of AQP5 (AQP5(flag) construct) also did not perturb apical localization [15].
  • Furthermore, apical, but not basolateral, application of Hg(2+) significantly reduces the transepithelial osmotic permeability, suggesting that apical AQP1 and AQP5 may contribute significantly to fluid secretion [16].
  • Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) localizes in lipid rafts under control conditions and is induced to traffic to the apical plasma membrane in interlobular ducts of rat parotid glands by the activation of M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors or alpha1-adrenoceptors [17].
  • An increase in apical AQP5 protein expression was found in response to progesterone alone or in combination with oestrogen, which is similar to that seen at the time of implantation [18].
  • Thus, in this study, we demonstrate that an immortalized normal human salivary gland ductal cell (NS-SV-DC) line, lacking the expression of AQP5, acquires AQP5 gene expression in response to treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR), a DNA demethylating agent [9].

Regulatory relationships of AQP5

  • Our researchers have analyzed the changes of AQP5 expression induced by vector-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in the human airway submucosal gland cell line (SPC-A1) and observed its regulation on the expression of MUC5AC gene [12].

Other interactions of AQP5


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AQP5

  • Western blot analysis of AQP1 and AQP5 expression in the glands revealed that protein abundance decreased in a similar fashion [21].
  • Intracellular localization of AQP5 protein was done using confocal microscopy [1].
  • Localizations of AQP5 and MUC5AC in SPC-A1cells were detected by Immunofluorescence [12].
  • Using primers against highly conserved regions of mammalian and bird aquaporins in RT-PCR experiments, we amplified products derived from duck (Anas platyrhynchos) nasal gland RNA that were identified as homologues of mammalian and chicken aquaporin 1 and aquaporin 5 cDNAs by sequencing [21].
  • Despite this implication, AQP5 mRNA levels were almost the same between the two groups by Northern blotting, suggesting the irrelevance of transcriptional regulation for this diversity [22].


  1. Interferon-alpha upregulates gene expression of aquaporin-5 in human parotid glands. Smith, J.K., Siddiqui, A.A., Modica, L.A., Dykes, R., Simmons, C., Schmidt, J., Krishnaswamy, G.A., Berk, S.L. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Defective cellular trafficking of lacrimal gland aquaporin-5 in Sjögren's syndrome. Tsubota, K., Hirai, S., King, L.S., Agre, P., Ishida, N. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Abnormal distribution of aquaporin-5 water channel protein in salivary glands from Sjögren's syndrome patients. Steinfeld, S., Cogan, E., King, L.S., Agre, P., Kiss, R., Delporte, C. Lab. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression and localization of aquaporin-5 in the epithelial ovarian tumors. Yang, J.H., Shi, Y.F., Cheng, Q., Deng, L. Gynecol. Oncol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Distribution of salivary aquaporin-5 in Sjögren's syndrome. Steinfeld, S.D., Delporte, C. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. A role for AQP5 in activation of TRPV4 by hypotonicity: concerted involvement of AQP5 and TRPV4 in regulation of cell volume recovery. Liu, X., Bandyopadhyay, B., Nakamoto, T., Singh, B., Liedtke, W., Melvin, J.E., Ambudkar, I. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Radioprotective effect of heat shock protein 25 on submandibular glands of rats. Lee, H.J., Lee, Y.J., Kwon, H.C., Bae, S., Kim, S.H., Min, J.J., Cho, C.K., Lee, Y.S. Am. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Nickel and extracellular acidification inhibit the water permeability of human aquaporin-3 in lung epithelial cells. Zelenina, M., Bondar, A.A., Zelenin, S., Aperia, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of aquaporin-5 in and fluid secretion from immortalized human salivary gland ductal cells by treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine: a possibility for improvement of xerostomia in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. Motegi, K., Azuma, M., Tamatani, T., Ashida, Y., Sato, M. Lab. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Closely spaced tandem arrangement of AQP2, AQP5, and AQP6 genes in a 27-kilobase segment at chromosome locus 12q13. Ma, T., Yang, B., Umenishi, F., Verkman, A.S. Genomics (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of MUC5AC mucin secretion by depletion of AQP5 in SPC-A1 cells. Chen, Z., Wang, X., Gao, L., Bai, L., Zhu, R., Bai, C. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Downregulation of aquaporin 5 induced by vector-based short hairpin RNA and its effect on MUC5AC gene expression in human airway submucosal gland cells. Chen, Z., Zhu, R., Bai, L., Bai, C. Respiratory physiology & neurobiology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression and localization of epithelial aquaporins in the adult human lung. Kreda, S.M., Gynn, M.C., Fenstermacher, D.A., Boucher, R.C., Gabriel, S.E. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Altered expression of aquaporins in bullous keratopathy and Fuchs' dystrophy corneas. Kenney, M.C., Atilano, S.R., Zorapapel, N., Holguin, B., Gaster, R.N., Ljubimov, A.V. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Modifying the NH2 and COOH termini of aquaporin-5: effects on localization in polarized epithelial cells. Wellner, R.B., Hong, S., Cotrim, A.P., Swaim, W.D., Baum, B.J. Tissue engineering. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. The role of aquaporin water channels in fluid secretion by the exocrine pancreas. Burghardt, B., Nielsen, S., Steward, M.C. J. Membr. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular mechanisms and drug development in aquaporin water channel diseases: the translocation of aquaporin-5 from lipid rafts to the apical plasma membranes of parotid glands of normal rats and the impairment of it in diabetic or aged rats. Ishikawa, Y., Inoue, N., Zhenfang, Y., Nakae, Y. J. Pharmacol. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Redistribution of aquaporins 1 and 5 in the rat uterus is dependent on progesterone: a study with light and electron microscopy. Lindsay, L.A., Murphy, C.R. Reproduction (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification and localization of aquaporin water channels in human salivary glands. Gresz, V., Kwon, T.H., Hurley, P.T., Varga, G., Zelles, T., Nielsen, S., Case, R.M., Steward, M.C. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Abnormal protein profiles in tears with dry eye syndrome. Ohashi, Y., Ishida, R., Kojima, T., Goto, E., Matsumoto, Y., Watanabe, K., Ishida, N., Nakata, K., Takeuchi, T., Tsubota, K. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Downregulation of aquaporins 1 and 5 in nasal gland by osmotic stress in ducklings, Anas platyrhynchos: implications for the production of hypertonic fluid. M??ller, C., Sendler, M., Hildebrandt, J.P. J. Exp. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. A naturally occurring point mutation in the rat aquaporin 5 gene, influencing its protein production by and secretion of water from salivary glands. Murdiastuti, K., Purwanti, N., Karabasil, M.R., Li, X., Yao, C., Akamatsu, T., Kanamori, N., Hosoi, K. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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