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Gene Review

AQP3  -  aquaporin 3 (Gill blood group)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AQP-3, Aquaglyceroporin-3, Aquaporin-3, GIL
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Disease relevance of AQP3


Psychiatry related information on AQP3

  • In response to water deprivation, AQP2 and AQP3 expression increased significantly in the cortex and medulla of 2-month-old rats but remained unchanged in the medulla or slightly increase in the cortex of 7-month-old animals [6].

High impact information on AQP3

  • We report that two members of the aquaporin family, AQP3 and AQP7, are expressed in immature DCs and are downregulated after maturation [7].
  • Aquaporin-2 is a vasopressin-regulated water channel located in the apical membrane, and aquaporin-3 is a constitutive water channel located in the basolateral membrane [8].
  • Little AQP7 or AQP9 mRNA was detected by reverse transcription-PCR in either cell line, whereas AQP3 mRNA expression was 2-fold lower in R15 cells than in CL3 cells [9].
  • When AQP3 expression in CL3 cells was knocked down by RNA interference, CL3 cells accumulated less arsenic and became more resistant to As(III) [9].
  • Here we report that both water and glycerol permeability of human AQP3 is inhibited by copper [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of AQP3

  • Our findings also suggest that AQP3 expression in vivo is regulated by mechanisms other than glucose exposure, peritonitis and traditional growth factors [3].
  • Dexamethasone-regulated AQP3 expression might be important in certain forms of pulmonary diseases accompanied by airway hypersecretion that are treated by corticosteroid administration [11].

Biological context of AQP3


Anatomical context of AQP3

  • Although both aquaporins permit water flow across the cell membrane, only AQP3 was permeable to glycerol and urea (Pgly > Pur) [16].
  • By immunofluorescence, anti-AQP3 antibodies stained the plasma membranes of both normal and Colton-null erythrocytes [17].
  • The uptake of glycerol into oocytes expressing AQP3 was linear up to 165 mM [16].
  • Although transcripts encoding for AQP3 has been detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in murine peritoneal mesothelium, to date there is no documentation of protein expression on peritoneal mesothelial cells [12].
  • AQP3 resides in the basolateral membranes of collecting duct principal cells providing an exit pathway for water, and AQP4 is abundant in brain, where it apparently functions as the hypothalamic osmoreceptor responsible for secretion of antidiuretic hormone [18].

Associations of AQP3 with chemical compounds

  • HgCl2 reversibly reduced the Lp of AQP3 and increased sigmaglyc to 1 and sigmaform to 0 [19].
  • In addition, phloretin (0.1 mM) inhibited Pf of AQP3 by 35%, whereas it did not alter Pgly or Pur [16].
  • The sulfhydryl reagent p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonate (1 mM) abolished Pf of AQP3, whereas it did not affect Pgly [16].
  • METHOD: Our present study was designed to explore the gene and protein expression of AQP3 in HPMC and its regulation under different concentrations of glucose [12].
  • Incubation of keratinocytes in sorbitol-added hypertonic medium increased AQP3 mRNA expression [20].

Regulatory relationships of AQP3


Other interactions of AQP3

  • Aquaporins are a family of intrinsic membrane proteins that function as water-selective channels (except aquaporin-3 and aquaporin-7, which are permeable to urea and glycerol as well) in the plasma membranes of many cells [25].
  • We conclude that AQP3 and AQP5 together may provide a pathway for transcellular osmotic water flow in the formation of the primary saliva [26].
  • The distribution of the AQP1 and AQP3 proteins was also studied by immunohistochemical staining using affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies [27].
  • When treated with CT, water permeability of AQP4 was facilitated while that of AQP3 was suppressed [28].
  • AQP1 is expressed in apical and basolateral membranes of proximal tubules and descending limbs of Henle, AQP2 predominantly in apical membranes of principal and inner medullary collecting duct cells and AQP3 in basolateral membranes of kidney collecting duct cells [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AQP3


  1. Nickel and extracellular acidification inhibit the water permeability of human aquaporin-3 in lung epithelial cells. Zelenina, M., Bondar, A.A., Zelenin, S., Aperia, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Altered expression of aquaporins in bullous keratopathy and Fuchs' dystrophy corneas. Kenney, M.C., Atilano, S.R., Zorapapel, N., Holguin, B., Gaster, R.N., Ljubimov, A.V. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. The relationship between peritoneal transport characteristics and messenger RNA expression of aquaporin in the peritoneal dialysis effluent of CAPD patients. Szeto, C.C., Lai, K.B., Chow, K.M., Szeto, C.Y., Li, P.K. J. Nephrol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. AQP1 and AQP3, psoriasin, and nitric oxide synthases 1-3 are inflammatory mediators in erythema toxicum neonatorum. Marchini, G., Ståbi, B., Kankes, K., Lonne-Rahm, S., Østergaard, M., Nielsen, S. Pediatric dermatology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Increased expression of aquaporin 3 in atopic eczema. Olsson, M., Broberg, A., Jernås, M., Carlsson, L., Rudemo, M., Suurküla, M., Svensson, P.A., Benson, M. Allergy (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Resistance of mTAL Na+-dependent transporters and collecting duct aquaporins to dehydration in 7-month-old rats. Amlal, H., Wilke, C. Kidney Int. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. The role of aquaporins in dendritic cell macropinocytosis. de Baey, A., Lanzavecchia, A. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Aquaporin-2 and -3: representatives of two subgroups of the aquaporin family colocalized in the kidney collecting duct. Sasaki, S., Ishibashi, K., Marumo, F. Annu. Rev. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Enhanced expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 and reduced expression of aquaglyceroporin 3 in an arsenic-resistant human cell line. Lee, T.C., Ho, I.C., Lu, W.J., Huang, J.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Copper inhibits the water and glycerol permeability of aquaporin-3. Zelenina, M., Tritto, S., Bondar, A.A., Zelenin, S., Aperia, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Induction of aquaporin 3 by corticosteroid in a human airway epithelial cell line. Tanaka, M., Inase, N., Fushimi, K., Ishibashi, K., Ichioka, M., Sasaki, S., Marumo, F. Am. J. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of aquaporin-3 in human peritoneal mesothelial cells and its up-regulation by glucose in vitro. Lai, K.N., Leung, J.C., Chan, L.Y., Tang, S., Li, F.K., Lui, S.L., Chan, T.M. Kidney Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. The relationship between intramembranous particles and aquaporin molecules in the plasma membranes of normal rat skeletal muscles: a fracture-label study. Shibuya, S., Wakayama, Y., Inoue, M., Kojima, H., Oniki, H. Journal of electron microscopy. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. The perinatal expression of aquaporin-2 and aquaporin-3 in developing kidney. Baum, M.A., Ruddy, M.K., Hosselet, C.A., Harris, H.W. Pediatr. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of aquaporin 3 and its localization in normal skeletal myofibres. Wakayama, Y., Jimi, T., Inoue, M., Kojima, H., Shibuya, S., Murahashi, M., Hara, H., Oniki, H. Histochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Selectivity of the renal collecting duct water channel aquaporin-3. Echevarría, M., Windhager, E.E., Frindt, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Evidence for the presence of aquaporin-3 in human red blood cells. Roudier, N., Verbavatz, J.M., Maurel, C., Ripoche, P., Tacnet, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. The aquaporin family of water channels in kidney. Nielsen, S., Agre, P. Kidney Int. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Bidirectional water fluxes and specificity for small hydrophilic molecules in aquaporins 0-5. Meinild, A.K., Klaerke, D.A., Zeuthen, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Osmotic stress up-regulates aquaporin-3 gene expression in cultured human keratinocytes. Sugiyama, Y., Ota, Y., Hara, M., Inoue, S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Minireview: aquaporin 2 trafficking. Valenti, G., Procino, G., Tamma, G., Carmosino, M., Svelto, M. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. EGFR-mediated expression of aquaporin-3 is involved in human skin fibroblast migration. Cao, C., Sun, Y., Healey, S., Bi, Z., Hu, G., Wan, S., Kouttab, N., Chu, W., Wan, Y. Biochem. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator activates aquaporin 3 in airway epithelial cells. Schreiber, R., Nitschke, R., Greger, R., Kunzelmann, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Enhancement of aquaporin-3 by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in a human colonic epithelial cell line. Itoh, A., Tsujikawa, T., Fujiyama, Y., Bamba, T. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Aquaporins (water channels): role in vasopressin-activated water transport. Dibas, A.I., Mia, A.J., Yorio, T. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Identification and localization of aquaporin water channels in human salivary glands. Gresz, V., Kwon, T.H., Hurley, P.T., Varga, G., Zelles, T., Nielsen, S., Case, R.M., Steward, M.C. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Immunohistochemical localization of aquaporin 10 in the apical membranes of the human ileum: a potential pathway for luminal water and small solute absorption. Mobasheri, A., Shakibaei, M., Marples, D. Histochem. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Positive and negative regulation of water channel aquaporins in human small intestine by cholera toxin. Hamabata, T., Liu, C., Takeda, Y. Microb. Pathog. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Discovery of aquaporins: a breakthrough in research on renal water transport. van Lieburg, A.F., Knoers, N.V., Deen, P.M. Pediatr. Nephrol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Expression and localization of aquaporin 1 and 3 in human fetal membranes. Mann, S.E., Ricke, E.A., Yang, B.A., Verkman, A.S., Taylor, R.N. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Mercury-sensitive residues and pore site in AQP3 water channel. Kuwahara, M., Gu, Y., Ishibashi, K., Marumo, F., Sasaki, S. Biochemistry (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Aquaporin-3 expression in human fetal airway epithelial progenitor cells. Avril-Delplanque, A., Casal, I., Castillon, N., Hinnrasky, J., Puchelle, E., Péault, B. Stem Cells (2005) [Pubmed]
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