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Disease relevance of Superinfection


Psychiatry related information on Superinfection

  • Infection of mice with an attenuated Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent (SY-CJD) interferes with superinfection by a more virulent human-derived CJD agent (FU-CJD) and does not require pathological prion protein (PrPres) [6].

High impact information on Superinfection


Chemical compound and disease context of Superinfection


Biological context of Superinfection


Anatomical context of Superinfection


Gene context of Superinfection

  • Prior to superinfection, the cells express neither IL-9 nor IL-9R [27].
  • AAV2 superinfection of HPV type 31b (HPV31b)-positive cells at early times postinfection resulted in degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21(WAF1) protein in a proteosome-dependent manner [28].
  • Infection of normal MEFs, Hep2, or A549 cells with an adenovirus vector expressing a dominant-negative (DN) IkappaBalpha, followed by superinfection with HSV, resulted in a 98% drop in virus yield [29].
  • Consequently, the CD4 CDR3-related region could play a major role as the receptor for the superinfection reported here [30].
  • The superinfection exclusion gene (sieA) of bacteriophage P22: identification and overexpression of the gene and localization of the gene product [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Superinfection


  1. Beta-lactam antibiotic therapy in febrile granulocytopenic patients. A randomized trial comparing cefoperazone plus piperacillin, ceftazidime plus piperacillin, and imipenem alone. Winston, D.J., Ho, W.G., Bruckner, D.A., Champlin, R.E. Ann. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Surface marker characteristics and Epstein-Barr virus studies of two established North American Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. Epstein, A.L., Henle, W., Henle, G., Hewetson, J.F., Kaplan, H.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 can superinfect HIV-2-infected cells: pseudotype virions produced with expanded cellular host range. Le Guern, M., Levy, J.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Retroviral mutants efficiently expressed in embryonal carcinoma cells. Franz, T., Hilberg, F., Seliger, B., Stocking, C., Ostertag, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Hepatic and extrahepatic malignancies in primary biliary cirrhosis. Floreani, A., Baragiotta, A., Baldo, V., Menegon, T., Farinati, F., Naccarato, R. Hepatology (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Reciprocal interference between specific CJD and scrapie agents in neural cell cultures. Nishida, N., Katamine, S., Manuelidis, L. Science (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Abelson virus drives the differentiation of Harvey virus-infected erythroid cells. Waneck, G.L., Keyes, L., Rosenberg, N. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of alpha genes of herpes simplex virus: expression of chimeric genes produced by fusion of thymidine kinase with alpha gene promoters. Post, L.E., Mackem, S., Roizman, B. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Loss of integrated viral DNA sequences in polyomatransformed cells is associated with an active viral A function. Basilico, C., Gattoni, S., Zouzias, D., Valle, G.D. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. Enterococcal superinfection in paediatric oncology patients treated with imipenem. Gray, J.W., Pedler, S., Kernahan, J., Pearson, A.D., Craft, A.W. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Superinfection with rifampin-isoniazid-streptomycin-ethambutol (RISE)-resistant tuberculosis in three patients with AIDS: confirmation by polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting. Horn, D.L., Hewlett, D., Haas, W.H., Butler, W.R., Alfalla, C., Tan, E., Levine, A., Nayak, A., Opal, S.M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Enterococcal superinfection and colonization after therapy with moxalactam, a new broad-spectrum antibiotic. Yu, V.L. Ann. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Tumor necrosis factor-dependent production of human immunodeficiency virus 1 in chronically infected HL-60 cells. Kitano, K., Rivas, C.I., Baldwin, G.C., Vera, J.C., Golde, D.W. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Cefotaxime is more effective than is ampicillin-tobramycin in cirrhotics with severe infections. Felisart, J., Rimola, A., Arroyo, V., Perez-Ayuso, R.M., Quintero, E., Gines, P., Rodes, J. Hepatology (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Aztreonam vs. cefotaxime in the treatment of gram-negative spontaneous peritonitis in cirrhotic patients. Ariza, J., Xiol, X., Esteve, M., Fernández Bañeres, F., Liñares, J., Alonso, T., Gudiol, F. Hepatology (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of indomethacin on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen induction. Daniel, L.W., Bauer, G., zur Hausen, H. Cancer Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Evidence that levels of the dimeric cellular transcription factor CP2 play little role in the activation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat in vivo or following superinfection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Zhong, F., Swendeman, S.L., Popik, W., Pitha, P.M., Sheffery, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. DNA replication is required for abundant expression of a plasmid-borne late US11 gene of herpes simplex virus type 1. Johnson, P.A., Everett, R.D. Nucleic Acids Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Differential cell killing by lymphomagenic murine leukemia viruses occurs independently of p53 activation and mitochondrial damage. Nanua, S., Yoshimura, F.K. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Reverse genetics for crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Flick, R., Flick, K., Feldmann, H., Elgh, F. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Viral genetic determinants of T-cell killing and immunodeficiency disease induction by the feline leukemia virus FeLV-FAIDS. Donahue, P.R., Quackenbush, S.L., Gallo, M.V., deNoronha, C.M., Overbaugh, J., Hoover, E.A., Mullins, J.I. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Prospective, randomized comparison of sequential intravenous followed by oral ciprofloxacin with intravenous ceftazidime in the treatment of serious infections. Peacock, J.E., Pegram, P.S., Weber, S.F., Leone, P.A. Am. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. U3 long terminal repeat-mediated induction of intracellular immunity by a murine retrovirus: a novel model of latency for retroviruses. Gorska-Flipot, I., Huang, M., Cantin, M., Rassart, E., Massé, G., Jolicoeur, P. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Mature reverse transcriptase (p66/p51) is responsible for low levels of viral DNA found in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Arts, E.J., Mak, J., Kleiman, L., Wainberg, M.A. Leukemia (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Epstein-Barr virus induces a unique pyrimidine deoxynucleoside kinase activity in superinfected and virus-producer B cell lines. Stinchcombe, T., Clough, W. Biochemistry (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Interleukin 5 (IL-5) is not required for expression of a Th2 response or host resistance mechanisms during murine schistosomiasis mansoni but does play a role in development of IL-4-producing non-T, non-B cells. Brunet, L.R., Sabin, E.A., Cheever, A.W., Kopf, M.A., Pearce, E.J. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Replacement of interleukin-2 (IL-2)-generated mitogenic signals by a mink cell focus-forming (MCF) or xenotropic virus-induced IL-9-dependent autocrine loop: implications for MCF virus-induced leukemogenesis. Flubacher, M.M., Bear, S.E., Tsichlis, P.N. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 Increases Proteosome-Dependent Degradation of p21WAF1 in a Human Papillomavirus Type 31b-Positive Cervical Carcinoma Line. Alam, S., Sen, E., Brashear, H., Meyers, C. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Efficient replication by herpes simplex virus type 1 involves activation of the IkappaB kinase-IkappaB-p65 pathway. Gregory, D., Hargett, D., Holmes, D., Money, E., Bachenheimer, S.L. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) superinfection of a cell clone converting it from production of defective to infectious HIV-1 is mediated predominantly by CD4 regions other than the major binding site for HIV-1 glycoproteins. Ohki, K., Kishi, M., Ohmura, K., Morikawa, Y., Jones, I.M., Azuma, I., Ikuta, K. J. Gen. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. The superinfection exclusion gene (sieA) of bacteriophage P22: identification and overexpression of the gene and localization of the gene product. Hofer, B., Ruge, M., Dreiseikelmann, B. J. Bacteriol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Safety and effectiveness of ticarcillin plus clavulanate potassium in treatment of lower respiratory tract infections. Mostow, S.R., O'Brien, R.F. Am. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  33. Prospective randomized trial of piperacillin monotherapy versus carboxypenicillin-aminoglycoside combination regimens in the empirical treatment of serious bacterial infections. Gribble, M.J., Chow, A.W., Naiman, S.C., Smith, J.A., Bowie, W.R., Sacks, S.L., Grossman, L., Buskard, N., Growe, G.H., Plenderleith, L.H. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Randomized comparison of cefepime and ceftazidime for treatment of skin, surgical wound, and complicated urinary tract infections in hospitalized subjects. Gentry, L.O., Rodriguez-Gomez, G. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1991) [Pubmed]
  35. Distinctly different msp2 pseudogene repertoires in Anaplasma marginale strains that are capable of superinfection. Rodríguez, J.L., Palmer, G.H., Knowles, D.P., Brayton, K.A. Gene (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Protective immunity to malaria. Studies with cloned lines of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi and P. berghei in CBA/Ca mice. II. The effectiveness and inter- or intra-species specificity of the passive transfer of immunity with serum. Jarra, W., Hills, L.A., March, J.C., Brown, K.N. Parasite Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
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