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Gene Review

ESR2  -  estrogen receptor 2 (ER beta)

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of ESR2


High impact information on ESR2

  • Both compounds up-regulated the expression of nuclear estrogen receptors ER-alpha and ER-beta [2].
  • ER-beta is the predominant form of the receptor expressed in the murine midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) [3].
  • BACKGROUND: Distinct expression patterns of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta are displayed in the murine central nervous system [3].
  • We conclude that a low concentration of daidzein may exert its anti-resorptive action by increasing the activity of porcine mature osteoblasts via ERbeta, by regulating runx2/Cbfa1 production, and by stimulating the secretion of key proteins involved in osteoclastogenesis, such as osteoprotegerin and RANK-ligand [4].
  • Relative amounts of ERalpha and ERbeta mRNAs decreased in the endometrium of gilts treated with E plus 10 mg DHT compared with gilts treated with E [5].

Biological context of ESR2


Anatomical context of ESR2

  • Northern and Western blot analyses using porcine filamentous embryos from Day 12 of pregnancy demonstrated the presence of multiple ER-beta mRNA transcripts of approximately 9.5, 4.9, and 3.5 kilobases, and a similar 64-kDa protein corresponding in size to human ovarian granulosa cell ER-beta, respectively [6].
  • RNase protection assays revealed that ER beta mRNA was expressed in the preovulatory follicles and early, midluteal, and regressing corpora lutea (CL) of eCG +/- hCG-primed gilts [7].
  • ER beta delta 5 was shown by immunofluorescence to localize to the nucleus in transfected COS-1 cells [7].
  • The objectives of the present experiment were to determine effects of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on estrogenic actions in the pig uterus and its associations with changes in expression of the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and ERbeta [5].
  • Immunolocalization of estrogen receptor beta in the epididymis of mature and immature pigs [8].

Associations of ESR2 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of ESR2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ESR2

  • METHODS: In this study we used immunocytochemistry to show that ER-beta and TPH are colocalized in the serotonergic cells of the murine DRN [3].
  • Molecular cloning of porcine estrogen receptor-beta complementary DNAs and developmental expression in periimplantation embryos [6].
  • A clear expression of the ERalpha mRNA and a weak expression of the ERbeta mRNA was seen in skeletal muscle tissue and SM satellite cell cultures, as determined by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR [12].
  • The present study was undertaken to determine the tissue-specific expression of estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), and the effects of a daidzein supplement to the diet of pregnant sows on the expression of ERbeta, and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) genes in newborn piglets by using semi-quantitative RT-PCR [1].
  • In this paper, we report the assignment of the pig ESR2 gene to porcine chromosome 1 by radiation hybrid mapping [13].


  1. Feeding daidzein to late pregnant sows influences the estrogen receptor beta and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor mRNA expression in newborn piglets. Ren, M.Q., Kuhn, G., Wegner, J., Nürnberg, G., Chen, J., Ender, K. J. Endocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Down-regulation of osteoclast differentiation by daidzein via caspase 3. Rassi, C.M., Lieberherr, M., Chaumaz, G., Pointillart, A., Cournot, G. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Estrogen receptor-beta regulates tryptophan hydroxylase-1 expression in the murine midbrain raphe. Gundlah, C., Alves, S.E., Clark, J.A., Pai, L.Y., Schaeffer, J.M., Rohrer, S.P. Biol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. A low dose of daidzein acts as an ERbeta-selective agonist in trabecular osteoblasts of young female piglets. De Wilde, A., Lieberherr, M., Colin, C., Pointillart, A. J. Cell. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Attenuation of estrogenic effects by dihydrotestosterone in the pig uterus is associated with downregulation of the estrogen receptors. Cárdenas, H., Pope, W.F. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular cloning of porcine estrogen receptor-beta complementary DNAs and developmental expression in periimplantation embryos. Kowalski, A.A., Graddy, L.G., Vale-Cruz, D.S., Choi, I., Katzenellenbogen, B.S., Simmen, F.A., Simmen, R.C. Biol. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning and characterization of porcine ovarian estrogen receptor beta isoforms. LaVoie, H.A., DeSimone, D.C., Gillio-Meina, C., Hui, Y.Y. Biol. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Immunolocalization of estrogen receptor beta in the epididymis of mature and immature pigs. Carpino, A., Bilinska, B., Siciliano, L., Maggiolini, M., Rago, V. Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Acquisition of luteolytic capacity: changes in prostaglandin F2alpha regulation of steroid hormone receptors and estradiol biosynthesis in pig corpora lutea. Diaz, F.J., Wiltbank, M.C. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Ovarian steroid action on tryptophan hydroxylase protein and serotonin compared to localization of ovarian steroid receptors in midbrain of guinea pigs. Lu, N.Z., Shlaes, T.A., Gundlah, C., Dziennis, S.E., Lyle, R.E., Bethea, C.L. Endocrine (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Specific contribution of estrogen receptors on mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and vascular cell activation. Geraldes, P., Sirois, M.G., Tanguay, J.F. Circ. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Evidence for estrogen receptor alpha and beta expression in skeletal muscle of pigs. Kalbe, C., Mau, M., Wollenhaupt, K., Rehfeldt, C. Histochem. Cell Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Mapping of the porcine oestrogen receptor 2 gene and association study with litter size in Iberian pigs. Muñoz, G., Ovilo, C., Amills, M., Rodríguez, C. Anim. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
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