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MeSH Review

Raphe Nuclei

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Disease relevance of Raphe Nuclei


Psychiatry related information on Raphe Nuclei

  • Similar infusions of BDNF into the dorsal raphe nucleus produce an antidepressant effect, as evaluated by several 'learned helplessness' paradigms [6].
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the roles of the presynaptic 5-hydroxtryptamine1A (5-HT1A) receptors in the median raphé nucleus (MRN) and of the postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in its projection area of the dorsal hippocampus in the social interaction and elevated plus-maze tests of anxiety [7].
  • One week after a single social defeat stress, cross-sensitization to cocaine is evident in terms of enhanced motor activity as well as in terms of increased Fos labeling in the periaqueductal grey area, the locus coeruleus, and the dorsal raphe nuclei [8].
  • We performed a quantitative immunohistochemical study of serotonin (5-HT)-containing neurons linked to hypersomnia in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and the superior central nucleus (SCN) in 8 patients with MyD, 5 of whom showed hypersomnia, and in 12 age-matched controls [9].
  • In animals, sleep deprivation and pharmacologic treatment with antidepressants exert similar effects on 5-HT neurotransmission, notably functional desensitization of 5-HT1A autoreceptors located on 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) [10].

High impact information on Raphe Nuclei


Chemical compound and disease context of Raphe Nuclei


Biological context of Raphe Nuclei


Anatomical context of Raphe Nuclei


Associations of Raphe Nuclei with chemical compounds

  • Tryptophan hydroxylase [EC; L-tryptophan, tetrahydropteridine:oxygen oxidoreductase (5-hydroxylating)], the enzyme catalyzing the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of serotonin, was purified 79-fold from the region of the raphe nucleus of rat midbrain by sequential column chromatography and disc-gel electrophoresis [30].
  • There may exist a rostrally projecting neuronal tryptamine containing system arising from cell bodies in or close to the nucleus raphé medianus [31].
  • The disappearance of the hybridization signal for GAP-43 mRNA after intracerebroventricular injections of the neurotoxins 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) indicated that high levels of GAP-43 are synthesized in the serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei and in the catecholaminergic neurons of the SNc, VTA, and LC [32].
  • Morphological evidence demonstrates the existence of dopaminergic afferent pathways and dopamine (DA)-containing neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) [33].
  • Levels of mRNA for the SERT in the raphe nucleus were also unaltered by chronic paroxetine treatment [34].

Gene context of Raphe Nuclei


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Raphe Nuclei


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  3. 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin, a selective serotonin1A receptor agonist, blocks haloperidol-induced catalepsy by an action on raphe nuclei medianus and dorsalis. Invernizzi, R.W., Cervo, L., Samanin, R. Neuropharmacology (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Antagonist properties of LY 165,163 at pre- and postsynaptic dopamine D2, D3 and D1 receptors: modulation of agonist actions at 5-HT1A receptors in vivo. Millan, M.J., Rivet, J.M., Audinot, V., Gobert, A., Lejeune, F., Brocco, M., Newman-Tancredi, A., Maurel-Remy, S., Bervoets, K. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1995) [Pubmed]
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  8. Aggression and defeat: persistent effects on cocaine self-administration and gene expression in peptidergic and aminergic mesocorticolimbic circuits. Miczek, K.A., Covington, H.E., Nikulina, E.M., Hammer, R.P. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Loss of serotonin-containing neurons in the raphe of patients with myotonic dystrophy: a quantitative immunohistochemical study and relation to hypersomnia. Ono, S., Takahashi, K., Jinnai, K., Kanda, F., Fukuoka, Y., Kurisaki, H., Mitake, S., Inagaki, T., Yamano, T., Nagao, K. Neurology (1998) [Pubmed]
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  16. Sex differences in the reversal of fluoxetine-induced anorexia following raphe injections of 8-OH-DPAT. Currie, P.J., Braver, M., Mirza, A., Sricharoon, K. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Stimulation of benzodiazepine receptors in the dorsal hippocampus and median raphé reveals differential GABAergic control in two animal tests of anxiety. Gonzalez, L.E., Ouagazzal, A.M., File, S.E. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of chronic treatment with zimelidine and REM sleep deprivation on the regulation of raphe neuronal activity in a rat model of depression. Maudhuit, C., Hamon, M., Adrien, J. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. 5-Hydroxytryptamine involvement in the locomotor activity suppressant effects of amphetamine in the mouse. Bradbury, A.J., Costall, B., Naylor, R.J., Onaivi, E.S. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Behavioural effects of serotonin agonists and antagonists in the rat and marmoset. Elliott, P.J., Walsh, D.M., Close, S.P., Higgins, G.A., Hayes, A.G. Neuropharmacology (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Auditory evoked potentials reflect serotonergic neuronal activity--a study in behaving cats administered drugs acting on 5-HT1A autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Juckel, G., Hegerl, U., Molnár, M., Csépe, V., Karmos, G. Neuropsychopharmacology (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Attenuation of induced-anxiety in rats by chlordiazepoxide: role of raphe dorsalis benzodiazepine binding sites and serotoninergic neurons. Thiébot, M.H., Hamon, M., Soubríe, P. Neuroscience (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Interaction of the median raphe nucleus and hypothalamic serotonin with cholinergic agents and pressor responses in the rat. Robinson, S.E. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1982) [Pubmed]
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  26. Brain phospholipase C isozymes: differential mRNA localizations by in situ hybridization. Ross, C.A., MacCumber, M.W., Glatt, C.E., Snyder, S.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Development of serotoninergic system in the brain and spinal cord of the chick. Okado, N., Sako, H., Homma, S., Ishikawa, K. Prog. Neurobiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Pharmacology and distribution of norepinephrine transporters in the human locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei. Ordway, G.A., Stockmeier, C.A., Cason, G.W., Klimek, V. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Localization of novel corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF2) mRNA expression to specific subcortical nuclei in rat brain: comparison with CRF1 receptor mRNA expression. Chalmers, D.T., Lovenberg, T.W., De Souza, E.B. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Brain tryptophan hydroxylase: purification of, production of antibodies to, and cellular and ultrastructural localization in serotonergic neurons of rat midbrain. Joh, T.H., Shikimi, T., Pickel, V.M., Reis, D.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  31. Tryptamine: a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter in mammalian brain? Jones, R.S. Prog. Neurobiol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  32. Distribution of GAP-43 mRNA in the brain stem of adult rats as evidenced by in situ hybridization: localization within monoaminergic neurons. Bendotti, C., Servadio, A., Samanin, R. J. Neurosci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Dopaminergic regulation of the serotonergic raphe-striatal pathway: microdialysis studies in freely moving rats. Ferré, S., Cortés, R., Artigas, F. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Effects of chronic antidepressant treatments on serotonin transporter function, density, and mRNA level. Benmansour, S., Cecchi, M., Morilak, D.A., Gerhardt, G.A., Javors, M.A., Gould, G.G., Frazer, A. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Differential hormonal regulation of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 mRNA in the murine dorsal raphe nucleus. Clark, J.A., Pai, L.Y., Flick, R.B., Rohrer, S.P. Biol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Neuronal tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the human dorsal and median raphe nuclei: major depression and suicide. Bach-Mizrachi, H., Underwood, M.D., Kassir, S.A., Bakalian, M.J., Sibille, E., Tamir, H., Mann, J.J., Arango, V. Neuropsychopharmacology (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. Effects of hypothalamic peptides on the aging brain. Sadow, T.F., Rubin, R.T. Psychoneuroendocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  38. Distribution of messenger RNAs encoding enkephalin, substance P, somatostatin, galanin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, neuropeptide Y, and calcitonin gene-related peptide in the midbrain periaqueductal grey in the rat. Smith, G.S., Savery, D., Marden, C., López Costa, J.J., Averill, S., Priestley, J.V., Rattray, M. J. Comp. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  39. Pharmacology of a cholecystokinin receptor on 5-hydroxytryptamine neurones in the dorsal raphe of the rat brain. Boden, P.R., Woodruff, G.N., Pinnock, R.D. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  40. Identification and characterization of antidepressant-sensitive serotonin transporter proteins using site-specific antibodies. Qian, Y., Melikian, H.E., Rye, D.B., Levey, A.I., Blakely, R.D. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  41. Differential effects of paroxetine on raphe and cortical 5-HT1A binding: a PET study in monkeys. Giovacchini, G., Lang, L., Ma, Y., Herscovitch, P., Eckelman, W.C., Carson, R.E. Neuroimage (2005) [Pubmed]
  42. Regulation of cortical blood flow by the dorsal raphe nucleus: topographic organization of cerebrovascular regulatory regions. Underwood, M.D., Bakalian, M.J., Arango, V., Smith, R.W., Mann, J.J. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  43. Immobilization stress elevates tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA and protein in the rat raphe nuclei. Chamas, F.M., Underwood, M.D., Arango, V., Serova, L., Kassir, S.A., Mann, J.J., Sabban, E.L. Biol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
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