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Gene Review

IL4  -  interleukin 4

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of IL4

  • The in vitro effect and the in vivo influence of recombinant swine IL-4 (rSwIL-4) were characterized in various swine cells and in nursery pigs on LPS-induced endotoxic shock and pro-inflammatory cytokine productions [1].

High impact information on IL4


Biological context of IL4


Anatomical context of IL4

  • These results suggest that IL-4 and IL-6 are locally produced in the porcine CL, and that they inhibit steroid production from luteal cells via their specific receptors [4].
  • Messenger RNA for IL-4 and IL-12p35 was not detected in the T-cells [6].
  • In this paper we demonstrate that cell membrane-expressed CD154 (CD40 ligand) is able to support the continual growth of porcine mesenteric lymph node B-cell cultures for more than 4 months without the addition of exogenous cytokines, such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) [7].
  • In general, we found increases in the percentages of IL-4-, gamma-IFN-, and TNF-alpha-producing lymphocytes in the infected piglets compared to the percentages in the uninfected control animals, while there was a decrease in the percentage of IL-8-producing monocytes [8].

Associations of IL4 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of IL4


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IL4

  • Interleukin 4 transcripts were then specifically amplified by PCR [3].
  • IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-4 mRNA expression was undetectable in our animal model, whereas IL-6 was constitutively transcribed in normal and ischaemic heart and remained insensitive to microembolisation and focal necrosis [11].
  • Messenger RNA was isolated from the T-cells and used to evaluate the effects of treatment on IL-12p35, IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 expression using RT-PCR [6].
  • In this case, comparison of ELISA and ELISPOT could not be done because cytokine levels in culture supernatants were often below the detection limit of the IL-4 ELISA [12].
  • Technically, by flow cytometry we were able to measure gamma interferon (gamma-IFN), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-8 levels [8].


  1. The effect of recombinant swine interleukin-4 on swine immune cells and on pro-inflammatory cytokine productions in pigs. Nuntaprasert, A., Mori, Y., Muneta, Y., Yoshihara, K., Tsukiyama-Kohara, K., Kai, C. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Interleukin-4 suppresses inflammatory cytokine gene transcription in porcine macrophages. Zhou, Y., Lin, G., Baarsch, M.J., Scamurra, R.W., Murtaugh, M.P. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of porcine interleukin 4 cDNA derived from lamina propria lymphocytes. Bailey, M., Perry, A.C., Bland, P.W., Stokes, C.R., Hall, L. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of mRNAs for interleukin-4, interleukin-6 and their receptors in porcine corpus luteum during the estrous cycle. Sakumoto, R., Komatsu, T., Kasuya, E., Saito, T., Okuda, K. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. 2E3, a new marker that selectively identifies porcine CD4+ naive T cells. Revilla, C., Rodríguez-Carreño, M.P., Alvarez, B., Chamorro, S., Alonso, L.M., Ezquerra, A., Alonso, F., Domínguez, J. Dev. Comp. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Th-1/Th-2 type cytokine profiles of pig T-cells cultured with antigen-treated monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Raymond, C.R., Wilkie, B.N. Vaccine (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Establishment of long-term CD154-dependent porcine B-cell cultures. Takamatsu, H., Andersen, J.K., Denyer, M.S., Parkhouse, R.M. Immunology (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Cytokine profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node cells from piglets infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Aasted, B., Bach, P., Nielsen, J., Lind, P. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Different European-type vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus have different immunological properties and confer different protection to pigs. Díaz, I., Darwich, L., Pappaterra, G., Pujols, J., Mateu, E. Virology (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Immune responses of pigs after experimental infection with a European strain of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Díaz, I., Darwich, L., Pappaterra, G., Pujols, J., Mateu, E. J. Gen. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Insulin-like growth factor I is involved in inflammation linked angiogenic processes after microembolisation in porcine heart. Kluge, A., Zimmermann, R., Münkel, B., Mohri, M., Sack, S., Schaper, J., Schaper, W. Cardiovasc. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Use of ELISPOT and ELISA to evaluate IFN-gamma, IL-10 and IL-4 responses in conventional pigs. Díaz, I., Mateu, E. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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