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Gene Review

IL1B2  -  interleukin 1, beta 2

Sus scrofa

Synonyms: IL-1beta, IL1B
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Disease relevance of IL-1beta

  • Recombinant IL-1 beta was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein containing an N-terminal hexahistidine tag followed by a factor-Xa-cleavage site [1].
  • Furthermore, robust expression of IL-8, IL-1beta, and inducible NO synthase mRNA was detected in the colon from 6 to 24 h following Shigella infection [2].
  • To test this hypothesis, we injected Salmonella enteritidis LPS (2 mug/kg body wt iv) into conscious guinea pigs and measured their plasma levels of LPS, PGE(2), TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 before and 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after LPS administration; T(c) was monitored continuously [3].
  • Infection with PRRSV also reduced (P < 0.009) villus height and crypt depth in cranial, medial, and caudal segments of the small intestine and increased (P < 0.05) lung and spleen weight, the number of leukocytes in lung lavage fluid, and serum concentrations of interferon-gamma and IL-1beta regardless of water treatment [4].
  • Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) elevates H- and L-ferritin subunit synthesis in both human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells [5].

High impact information on IL-1beta

  • Conventional intracellular microelectrodes and injection of biocytin were used to study the actions of IL-1beta and IL-6 on electrical and synaptic behavior in morphologically identified guinea pig small intestinal submucous neurons [6].
  • IL-1beta and IL-6 excite neurons and suppress nicotinic and noradrenergic neurotransmission in guinea pig enteric nervous system [6].
  • From 1 to 4 wk after the operation, coronary vasospastic responses to intracoronary serotonin or histamine were noted at the IL-1 beta-treated site but not at the control site [7].
  • Intimal thickening and coronary vasospastic responses to serotonin and histamine were induced at the site of the coronary artery where IL-1 beta was chronically and locally applied [8].
  • We therefore investigated the effects of a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, ST 638, on those responses induced by IL-1 beta in our swine model [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of IL-1beta


Biological context of IL-1beta


Anatomical context of IL-1beta


Associations of IL-1beta with chemical compounds

  • Addition of 10 ng/ml IL-1beta to the serosal surface of injured tissues caused a significant increase in TER (P < 0.05) that was inhibited by pretreatment with NS-398 [19].
  • Whether the effects of IL-1beta were mediated through a prostaglandin pathway and whether IL-1beta induced the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 was also examined [18].
  • (2) Lipopolysaccharide could up-regulate the expression of some inflammatory mediators in PIMs, including TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and COX-2, and these up-regulated expression of inflammatory mediators correlated with NF-kappaB activation [21].
  • Our results suggest that NF-kappaB activation in PIMs followed by phagocytizing lipopolysaccharide resulted in the up-regulation of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and COX-2, which could be alleviated by dexamethasone [21].
  • The effects of IL-1beta on the pump and NF-kappaB were prevented by the COX inhibitor indomethacin [15].

Regulatory relationships of IL-1beta


Other interactions of IL-1beta


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IL-1beta


  1. Gene sequence, cDNA construction, expression in Escherichia coli and genetically approached purification of porcine interleukin-1 beta. Vandenbroeck, K., Fiten, P., Beuken, E., Martens, E., Janssen, A., Van Damme, J., Opdenakker, G., Billiau, A. Eur. J. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. New animal model of shigellosis in the Guinea pig: its usefulness for protective efficacy studies. Shim, D.H., Suzuki, T., Chang, S.Y., Park, S.M., Sansonetti, P.J., Sasakawa, C., Kweon, M.N. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Kupffer cell-generated PGE2 triggers the febrile response of guinea pigs to intravenously injected LPS. Li, Z., Perlik, V., Feleder, C., Tang, Y., Blatteis, C.M. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Supplementing drinking water with Solutein did not mitigate acute morbidity effects of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in nursery pigs. Escobar, J., Toepfer-Berg, T.L., Chen, J., Van Alstine, W.G., Campbell, J.M., Johnson, R.W. J. Anim. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Ferritin translation by interleukin-1and interleukin-6: the role of sequences upstream of the start codons of the heavy and light subunit genes. Rogers, J.T. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. IL-1beta and IL-6 excite neurons and suppress nicotinic and noradrenergic neurotransmission in guinea pig enteric nervous system. Xia, Y., Hu, H.Z., Liu, S., Ren, J., Zafirov, D.H., Wood, J.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Chronic treatment with interleukin-1 beta induces coronary intimal lesions and vasospastic responses in pigs in vivo. The role of platelet-derived growth factor. Shimokawa, H., Ito, A., Fukumoto, Y., Kadokami, T., Nakaike, R., Sakata, M., Takayanagi, T., Egashira, K., Takeshita, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor suppresses coronary arteriosclerotic changes and vasospastic responses induced by chronic treatment with interleukin-1 beta in pigs in vivo. Ito, A., Shimokawa, H., Kadokami, T., Fukumoto, Y., Owada, M.K., Shiraishi, T., Nakaike, R., Takayanagi, T., Egashira, K., Takeshita, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis infection of the porcine jejunal Peyer's patch rapidly induces IL-1beta and IL-8 expression. Hyland, K.A., Brown, D.R., Murtaugh, M.P. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Single vs. dual vessel porcine extracorporeal liver perfusion. Mora, N., Kaptanoglu, L., Zhang, Z., Niekrasz, M., Black, S., Ver Steeg, K., Wade, R., Siddall, V., Pao, W., Walsh, W., Ivancic, D., Kaufman, D., Abecassis, M., Stuart, F., Blei, A., Leventhal, J., Fryer, J. J. Surg. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Vitamin E supplementation does not mitigate the acute morbidity effects of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in nursery pigs. Toepfer-Berg, T.L., Escobar, J., Van Alstine, W.G., Baker, D.H., Salak-Johnson, J., Johnson, R.W. J. Anim. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Endothelial vasodilator function is preserved at the spastic/inflammatory coronary lesions in pigs. Miyata, K., Shimokawa, H., Yamawaki, T., Kunihiro, I., Zhou, X., Higo, T., Tanaka, E., Katsumata, N., Egashira, K., Takeshita, A. Circulation (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Role of IL-6 and IL-1beta in reactivation by acetylcholine of latently infecting pseudorabies virus. Tanaka, S., Mannen, K. Exp. Anim. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Guinea Pig Neutrophils Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Produce Cytokines Which Activate Alveolar Macrophages in Noncontact Cultures. Sawant, K.V., McMurray, D.N. Infect. Immun. (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. The signal transduction pathway that mediates the effect of interleukin-1 beta on the Na+-K+-ATPase in LLC-PK1 cells. Kreydiyyeh, S.I., Al-Sadi, R. Pflugers Arch. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Oxytocin-induced labor augments IL-1beta-stimulated lung fluid absorption in fetal guinea pig lungs. Nair, P.K., Li, T., Bhattacharjee, R., Ye, X., Folkesson, H.G. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. IL-1beta stimulates alveolar fluid absorption in fetal guinea pig lungs via the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland axis. Ye, X., Acharya, R., Herbert, J.B., Hamilton, S.E., Folkesson, H.G. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Interleukin-1beta activates specific populations of enteric neurons and enteric glia in the guinea pig ileum and colon. Tjwa, E.T., Bradley, J.M., Keenan, C.M., Kroese, A.B., Sharkey, K.A. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Neutrophils augment recovery of porcine ischemia-injured ileal mucosa by an IL-1beta- and COX-2-dependent mechanism. Shifflett, D.E., Bottone, F.G., Young, K.M., Moeser, A.J., Jones, S.L., Blikslager, A.T. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, reduces the progression of experimental osteoarthritis in guinea pigs. Kobayashi, T., Notoya, K., Naito, T., Unno, S., Nakamura, A., Martel-Pelletier, J., Pelletier, J.P. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. LPS induces pulmonary intravascular macrophages producing inflammatory mediators via activating NF-kappaB. Chen, Z.T., Li, S.L., Cai, E.Q., Wu, W.L., Jin, J.S., Zhu, B. J. Cell. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Detection of changes in articular cartilage proteoglycan by T(1rho) magnetic resonance imaging. Wheaton, A.J., Dodge, G.R., Borthakur, A., Kneeland, J.B., Schumacher, H.R., Reddy, R. J. Orthop. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Interleukin-4 suppresses inflammatory cytokine gene transcription in porcine macrophages. Zhou, Y., Lin, G., Baarsch, M.J., Scamurra, R.W., Murtaugh, M.P. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Coronary artery endothelial interleukin-1 beta mediates enhanced fibronectin production related to post-cardiac transplant arteriopathy in piglets. Molossi, S., Clausell, N., Rabinovitch, M. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. In vitro effects of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae on inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in porcine alveolar macrophages. Cho, W.S., Chae, C. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. FK506 aerosol locally inhibits antigen-induced airway inflammation in Guinea pigs. Morishita, Y., Hirayama, Y., Miyayasu, K., Tabata, K., Kawamura, A., Ohkubo, Y., Mutoh, S. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Cytokine mRNA expression profiles in lymphoid tissues of pigs naturally affected by postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. Darwich, L., Pié, S., Rovira, A., Segalés, J., Domingo, M., Oswald, I.P., Mateu, E. J. Gen. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. A CCR1 antagonist prevents the development of experimental autoimmune myocarditis in association with T cell inactivation. Futamatsu, H., Suzuki, J., Koga, N., Adachi, S., Kosuge, H., Maejima, Y., Haga, T., Hirao, K., Horuk, R., Isobe, M. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Structural signaling regulates inflammation-induced enhanced restitution and increased Mib-1 and Bax-indexes after superficial injury in isolated guinea pig gastric mucosa. Bhowmik, A.C., Oksala, N.K., Auriko, J.P., Paavonen, T., Mustonen, H., Paimela, H. Dig. Dis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Induction of interleukin-1 in articular cartilage by explantation and cutting. Gruber, J., Vincent, T.L., Hermansson, M., Bolton, M., Wait, R., Saklatvala, J. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
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