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Gene Review

IL6  -  interleukin 6 (interferon, beta 2)

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of IL6


Psychiatry related information on IL6

  • Intrapancreatic ET-1 and IL-6 mRNA expression and ET-1 protein levels were significantly lower in the therapy group as compared with the control group [6].

High impact information on IL6


Chemical compound and disease context of IL6


Biological context of IL6

  • The presence of IL-6 mRNA in elongating preimplantation ovine (days 13-25), porcine (days 13-21), and bovine (days 16-20) conceptuses was also demonstrated by PCR after reverse transcription of total ribonucleic acid with reverse transcriptase and by solution hybridization with a pIL-6 cRNA probe [15].
  • It shares 61% and 43% amino acid sequence identity with human and mouse IL-6, respectively [15].
  • PCR procedures with primers designed from regions of sequence conserved between human and pig have been used to identify IL-6 cDNA in lambda gt11 libraries constructed from day 15-16 (sheep), day 17 (cattle), and day 13-17 (pig) conceptus mRNA [15].
  • A porcine interleukin-6 (pIL-6) cDNA has been cloned from pig spleen cDNA library to provide information that would allow us to study IL-6 mRNA expression during pregnancy of several domestic Artiodactyla [15].
  • Expression of mRNAs for interleukin-4, interleukin-6 and their receptors in porcine corpus luteum during the estrous cycle [16].

Anatomical context of IL6


Associations of IL6 with chemical compounds

  • Pretreatment with Zn2+ prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion induced an increased heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression in the lungs, liver, and kidneys and significantly increased plasma levels of interleukin 6, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and thromboxane-B2, compared with untreated controls [20].
  • RESULTS: Reperfusion levels of malondialdehyde, TNF-alpha, and interleukin 6 were significantly lower in group 1 at both 40 and 60 minutes [21].
  • Neither IL-4 nor IL-6 had any effect on PGF2alpha secretion by the cells [16].
  • These results suggest that IL-4 and IL-6 are locally produced in the porcine CL, and that they inhibit steroid production from luteal cells via their specific receptors [16].
  • In addition, the amount of ammonia, aromatic amino acids, IL6, TNFalpha and C3a removed during the 6-h treatment in the present study was higher by 34% to 175% than the total plasma content of those substances at the start of therapy [22].

Physical interactions of IL6


Other interactions of IL6

  • Expression of IL-6 mRNA increased at 2 hours after reperfusion and HSP70 at 3 hours after reperfusion [1].
  • Cytokine analysis showed increased IL-6, G-CSF, and TNF-alpha gene transcription in resuscitated swine compared with NF swine [24].
  • WB cultures exhibited peak IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 mRNA levels at 24, 12, 6 and 24h, respectively [25].
  • The inhibitory effect of PCV2 DNA was more diversified than if it had simply targeted CpG-ODN-induced cytokines (IFN-alpha, TNF-alpha, interleukin-6, IL-12) [26].
  • At six hours post infection, a clear enhancement of mRNA expression of TNFalpha, IL6, IL12 and IL15 was observed in macrophages infected with the low virulent ASFV/NH/P68 (NHV) when compared to those infected with the highly virulent ASFV/L60 (L60) [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IL6


  1. Kinetics and localization of interleukin-2, interleukin-6, heat shock protein 70, and interferon gamma during intestinal-rerfusion injury. Braun, F., Hosseini, M., Wieland, E., Sattler, B., Müller, A.R., Fändrich, F., Kremer, B., Ringe, B. Transplant. Proc. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Regulation of interleukin-6 expression in porcine immune cells. Scamurra, R., Arriaga, C., Sprunger, L., Baarsch, M.J., Murtaugh, M.P. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Quantitative analysis of interleukin-6 expression in porcine spleen cells and alveolar macrophages using real-time PCR. Lee, D.Y., Cho, Y.W., Kang, S.G., Shin, N.R., Choi, I.S., Shin, S.J., Yoo, H.S. Vet. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein attenuates systemic inflammation and acute lung injury in porcine lower limb ischemia-reperfusion injury. Harkin, D.W., Barros D'Sa, A.A., McCallion, K., Hoper, M., Halliday, M.I., Campbell, F.C. Ann. Surg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of cathelicidin gene expression: induction by lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-6, retinoic acid, and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection. Wu, H., Zhang, G., Minton, J.E., Ross, C.R., Blecha, F. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Endothelin(A) receptor blockade reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury in pig pancreas transplantation. Witzigmann, H., Ludwig, S., Armann, B., Gäbel, G., Teupser, D., Kratzsch, J., Pietsch, U.C., Tannapfel, A., Geissler, F., Hauss, J., Uhlmann, D. Ann. Surg. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Induction of interleukin-6 synthesis in the myocardium. Potential role in postreperfusion inflammatory injury. Kukielka, G.L., Smith, C.W., Manning, A.M., Youker, K.A., Michael, L.H., Entman, M.L. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Enhancement of platelet recovery in X-irradiated guinea pigs by romurtide, a synthetic muramyl dipeptide derivative. Namba, K., Otani, T., Osada, Y. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Glycosaminoglycans modulate cell-matrix interactions of human fibroblasts and endothelial cells in vitro. Schaefer, T., Roux, M., Stuhlsatz, H.W., Herken, R., Coulomb, B., Krieg, T., Smola, H. J. Cell. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Time course of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increase in serum following inhalation of swine dust. Wang, Z., Malmberg, P., Larsson, P., Larsson, B.M., Larsson, K. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Partial liquid ventilation reduces release of leukotriene B4 and interleukin-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage in surfactant-depleted newborn pigs. Merz, U., Klosterhalfen, B., Häusler, M., Kellinghaus, M., Peschgens, T., Hörnchen, H. Pediatr. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Injury (nociceptive afferent nerve stimulation) modifies the hemodynamic and metabolic responses to hemorrhage in immature swine. Foëx, B.A., Kirkman, E., Little, R.A. Crit. Care Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of a combined antithrombin III and protein C supplementation in porcine acute endotoxic shock. Fourrier, F., Jourdain, M., Tournoys, A., Gosset, P., Mangalaboyi, J., Chopin, C. Shock (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Interleukin-6 and interleukin-15 are selectively regulated by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma in primary pig adipocytes. Ajuwon, K.M., Jacobi, S.K., Kuske, J.L., Spurlock, M.E. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of interleukin-6 in porcine, ovine, and bovine preimplantation conceptuses. Mathialagan, N., Bixby, J.A., Roberts, R.M. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of mRNAs for interleukin-4, interleukin-6 and their receptors in porcine corpus luteum during the estrous cycle. Sakumoto, R., Komatsu, T., Kasuya, E., Saito, T., Okuda, K. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of an interleukin-6 - interleukin-2 fusion protein (pIL-6-IL-2) in P. pastoris. Lin, Y., Ya-Li, Q., Wei-Cheng, B., Xiao-Lan, Y., Hong-Liang, H., Huan-Chun, C. Eur. Cytokine Netw. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Primary graft nonfunction and Kupffer cell activation after liver transplantation from non-heart-beating donors in pigs. Monbaliu, D., van Pelt, J., De Vos, R., Greenwood, J., Parkkinen, J., Crabbé, T., Zeegers, M., Vekemans, K., Pincemail, J., Defraigne, J.O., Fevery, J., Pirenne, J. Liver Transpl. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Maturation of the mitogen responsiveness, and IL2 and IL6 production by neonatal swine leukocytes. Schwager, J., Schulze, J. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. The influence of heat shock protein 70 induction on hemodynamic variables in a porcine model of recurrent endotoxemia. Klosterhalfen, B., Hauptmann, S., Tietze, L., Töns, C., Winkeltau, G., Küpper, W., Kirkpatrick, C.J. Shock (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Ischemic training and immunosuppressive agents reduce the intensity of ischemic reperfusion injury after kidney transplantation. Treska, V., Molacek, J., Kobr, J., Racek, J., Trefil, L., Hes, O. Experimental and clinical transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. A novel plasma filtration therapy for hepatic failure: preclinical studies. Rozga, J., Umehara, Y., Trofimenko, A., Sadahiro, T., Demetriou, A.A. Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Cholesterol attenuates linoleic acid-induced endothelial cell activation. Meerarani, P., Smart, E.J., Toborek, M., Boissonneault, G.A., Hennig, B. Metab. Clin. Exp. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Fluid resuscitation increases inflammatory gene transcription after traumatic injury. Watters, J.M., Tieu, B.H., Todd, S.R., Jackson, T., Muller, P.J., Malinoski, D., Schreiber, M.A. The Journal of trauma. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Differential cytokine mRNA expression in swine whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Yancy, H., Ayers, S.L., Farrell, D.E., Day, A., Myers, M.J. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Silencing of natural interferon producing cell activation by porcine circovirus type 2 DNA. Vincent, I.E., Balmelli, C., Meehan, B., Allan, G., Summerfield, A., McCullough, K.C. Immunology (2007) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression at mRNA level of cytokines and A238L gene in porcine blood-derived macrophages infected in vitro with African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolates of different virulence. Gil, S., Spagnuolo-Weaver, M., Canals, A., Sepúlveda, N., Oliveira, J., Aleixo, A., Allan, G., Leitão, A., Martins, C.L. Arch. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Fever and circulating cytokines induced by double-stranded RNA in guinea pigs: dependence on the route of administration and effects of repeated injections. Voss, T., Rummel, C., Gerstberger, R., Hübschle, T., Roth, J. Acta physiologica (Oxford, England) (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Linkage mapping of porcine interleukin 6 (IL6). Burk, N.E., Vincent, A.L., Rothschild, M.F. J. Anim. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Inflammatory cytokine expression in swine experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Baarsch, M.J., Scamurra, R.W., Burger, K., Foss, D.L., Maheswaran, S.K., Murtaugh, M.P. Infect. Immun. (1995) [Pubmed]
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