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Gene Review

LYZ  -  lysozyme

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of LYZ

  • Lysozyme and angiotensin converting enzyme levels in experimental mycobacterial granulomas [1].
  • In the lymph nodes with granulomas induced by either live BCG or killed M. leprae, the mean concentrations of lysozyme and ACE varied directly with the mean weight of the lymph nodes but the temporal pattern of weight change differed with the two agents [1].
  • Guinea pigs were given lysozyme or pronase or both orally for a period of 8 days, and on day 7 they were primed with hepatitis B surface antigen [2].
  • Pulmonary MGC in dermatosis vegetans are derived from mesenchymal cells, and substantial evidence is provided in support of a monocyte/macrophage origin based on a positive reaction for lysozyme and a myelomonocytic antigen [3].
  • The bacteriocins of all seven Enterococcus strains were inactivated by alpha-chymotrypsin, proteinase K, trypsin, pronase, pepsin and papain, but not by lipase, lysozyme and catalase [4].

High impact information on LYZ

  • Not only their total contents in myeloperoxidase, beta-glucuronidase, lysozyme, and B12 binding protein were significantly reduced (by 62, 21, 47, and 63%, respectively, P less than 0.01), but also their capability for further secretion of residual B12 binding protein upon stimulation [5].
  • In addition, genistein and herbimycin A, potent protein-tyrosine-kinase inhibitors, were capable of reducing concanavalin A-evoked p72syk activation and Ca2+ mobilization as well as the aggregation and lysozyme release [6].
  • Absorption studies revealed that EAE-STA was diminished after exposure to guinea pig or rat spinal cord or guinea pig or rat kidney, but it was not demonstrably reduced after absorption with neonatal rat spinal cord lacking encephalitogenic activity or with guinea pig or rat myelin basic protein or lysozyme [7].
  • Amide hydrogen exchange in a highly denatured state. Hen egg-white lysozyme in urea [8].
  • This behaviour contrasts with that of a partly folded state of hen lysozyme denatured in trifluoroethanol and with that of the molten globule state of a homologous protein, guinea pig alpha-lactalbumin [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of LYZ

  • The increased lysozyme and ACE concentrations found in the lymph nodes of DNFB sensitised animals gives further evidence that such changes are not unique to granulomas [1].
  • The results obtained showed that tetanus toxoid and lysozyme were efficiently incorporated by the double emulsion procedure when ethyl acetate was used as solvent (>80% entrapment efficiency), whereas it was necessary to use methylene chloride to achieve high insulin entrapment efficiencies [9].

Biological context of LYZ

  • These reactions, with pig insulin, and with hen's-egg-white lysozyme, were carried out in neutral solution at 37 degrees C. High concentrations of penicillin are needed to label the proteins, owing to concurrent hydrolysis of penicillin [10].
  • Stimulation of cellular immunity in the group receiving both lysozyme and pronase simultaneously was significantly increased compared with the group receiving only one of them [2].
  • Comparative studies on radiolabeling of lysozyme by iodination and reductive methylation [11].
  • They express markers associated to a memory phenotype, respond to the recall antigen lysozyme, and produce high amounts of IFN-gamma and IL-4 [12].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Heparin has multiple binding sites for lysozyme, amounting to at most one lysozyme molecule per 3 disaccharide units of heparin [13].

Anatomical context of LYZ


Associations of LYZ with chemical compounds

  • The antigen was found to be resistant to nuclease, pronase, and lysozyme treatment; was precipitable with 70% ethanol; and was destroyed by sodium m-periodate--findings that are consistent with a carbohydrate structure [16].
  • Evidence has been obtained that the penicillin-reactive sites on the insulin molecule are the alpha-amino group at the N-terminus of the A chain and the epsilon-amino group of the lysine residue; whereas a site of reaction with lysozyme appears to be the epsilon-amino group of lysine-116 [10].
  • Under the low ionic strength conditions, gentamicin uptake was inhibited by the presence of other aminoglycosides, lysozyme, polyamines such as spermine and inorganic cations such as calcium [17].
  • Complexation decreased lysozyme stability, suggesting that heparin has a higher affinity for the unfolded state than the native state [13].
  • On the other hand, reductive methylation of lysozyme by formaldehyde and sodium cyanoborohydride was considered suitable for radiolabeling of lysozyme [11].

Other interactions of LYZ

  • Later, presumably after lysozyme was well adapted for functioning in the new environment, which contains acid, pepsin, and fermentation products, the rate of amino acid replacement became subnormal [18].
  • Toxic activity was destroyed by Pronase, phospholipase, lipase, amylase, and glucosidase but not by trypsin, collagenase, cellulase, lysozyme, hyaluronidase, or neuraminidase [19].
  • Sows fed CLA had higher (P < 0.05) serum leptin, IgG, and lysozyme [20].
  • Lysozyme, a protein of similar molecular weight, does not show a significant decrease in the extent of H/D exchange as it binds to Ca2+, indicating that the changes in H/D exchange for calmodulin reflect tertiary structural change that occur upon binding with Ca2+ [21].
  • Innate immunity-associated genes, including complement 3 and lysozyme, and the genes for epithelial chloride channel and trappin 1 were highly expressed by jejunal Peyer's patch in both juvenile and adult pigs [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LYZ


  1. Lysozyme and angiotensin converting enzyme levels in experimental mycobacterial granulomas. Rea, T.H., Narayanan, R.B., Turk, J.L. J. Pathol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of oral administration of lysozyme or digested bacterial cell walls on immunostimulation in guinea pigs. Namba, Y., Hidaka, Y., Taki, K., Morimoto, T. Infect. Immun. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. An immunohistochemical study on the cytogenetic origin of pulmonary multinucleate giant cells in porcine dermatosis vegetans. Evensen, O. Vet. Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Preliminary characterization of bacteriocins produced by Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis isolated from pig faeces. du Toit, M., Franz, C.M., Dicks, L.M., Holzapfel, W.H. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Pathogenesis of foreign body infection. Evidence for a local granulocyte defect. Zimmerli, W., Lew, P.D., Waldvogel, F.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Activation of protein-tyrosine kinase p72syk with concanavalin A in polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Asahi, M., Taniguchi, T., Hashimoto, E., Inazu, T., Maeda, H., Yamamura, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis supernatant transfer activity (EAE-STA) in Lewis rats:immunobiologic and initial biochemical properties. Whitacre, C.C., Paterson, P.Y. J. Immunol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Amide hydrogen exchange in a highly denatured state. Hen egg-white lysozyme in urea. Buck, M., Radford, S.E., Dobson, C.M. J. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Nanoprecipitation versus emulsion-based techniques for the encapsulation of proteins into biodegradable nanoparticles and process-related stability issues. Bilati, U., Allémann, E., Doelker, E. AAPS PharmSciTech [electronic resource]. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. The reaction of penicillin with proteins. Corran, P.H., Waley, S.G. Biochem. J. (1975) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparative studies on radiolabeling of lysozyme by iodination and reductive methylation. Habeeb, A.F. J. Immunol. Methods (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. 2E3, a new marker that selectively identifies porcine CD4+ naive T cells. Revilla, C., Rodríguez-Carreño, M.P., Alvarez, B., Chamorro, S., Alonso, L.M., Ezquerra, A., Alonso, F., Domínguez, J. Dev. Comp. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Complex coacervation of lysozyme and heparin: complex characterization and protein stability. van de Weert, M., Andersen, M.B., Frokjaer, S. Pharm. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Evolution of stomach lysozyme: the pig lysozyme gene. Yu, M., Irwin, D.M. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of prostaglandins on complement production by tissue macrophages. Rediske, J.J., Pickering, R.J. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Antibody titers to Propionibacterium acnes cell wall carbohydrate in nodulocystic acne patients. Webster, G.F., Indrisano, J.P., Leyden, J.J. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Transport of gentamicin and fluid-phase endocytosis markers in the LLC-PK1 kidney epithelial cell line. Takano, M., Ohishi, Y., Okuda, M., Yasuhara, M., Hori, R. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Episodic evolution in the stomach lysozymes of ruminants. Jollès, J., Jollès, P., Bowman, B.H., Prager, E.M., Stewart, C.B., Wilson, A.C. J. Mol. Evol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Further characterization of Mycobacterium ulcerans toxin. Hockmeyer, W.T., Krieg, R.E., Reich, M., Johnson, R.D. Infect. Immun. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid positively affects immunologic variables in lactating sows and piglets. Bontempo, V., Sciannimanico, D., Pastorelli, G., Rossi, R., Rosi, F., Corino, C. J. Nutr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and hydrogen/deuterium exchange for probing the interaction of calmodulin with calcium. Nemirovskiy, O., Giblin, D.E., Gross, M.L. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Gene expression profiling of jejunal Peyer's patches in juvenile and adult pigs. Machado, J.G., Hyland, K.A., Dvorak, C.M., Murtaugh, M.P. Mamm. Genome (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Regulation of antiprotease and antimicrobial protein secretion by airway submucosal gland serous cells. Joo, N.S., Lee, D.J., Winges, K.M., Rustagi, A., Wine, J.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Production and characterization of two Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 mutants. Gottschalk, M., Higgins, R., Jacques, M., Dubreuil, D. Vet. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Induction of the ATP-dependent proteolytic system in guinea pig reticulocyte lysates by triiodothyronine. Arumanayagam, M., Swaminathan, R. Life Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Urinalysis for detection of chemically induced renal damage (3)--Establishment and application of radioimmunoassay for lysozyme of rat urine. Ohata, H., Hashimoto, T., Monose, K., Takahashi, A., Terao, T. Arch. Toxicol. (1988) [Pubmed]
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